Presentation on theme: "This presentation was given at the 2007 Spring Forum of the Maryland Association of Agricultural Fairs and Shows, Inc. It discusses the issues and diseases."— Presentation transcript:
1 This presentation was given at the 2007 Spring Forum of the Maryland Association of Agricultural Fairs and Shows, Inc. It discusses the issues and diseases of primary importance at fairs and other expositions.
2 Assessing Sheep and Goat Health Maryland Association of Agricultural Fairs and Shows Spring Forum - March 18, 2007Assessing Sheep and Goat HealthSUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep and Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center Maryland Cooperative Extension (301) x343 –
3 Fairs are stressful to livestock Handling and transportation stress.New surroundings.New pen mates (?)Contact with other animals.Close quarters.Strange people.Different water, food (?)Heat stress.Out of their normal routine.
4 Basic assessment of sheep/goat health NormalHungryAlertGood body conditionBright eyes with good eyelid colorDry nose or slight clear (or white) discharge from nose.Head and ears upTail up (goat)Healthy hair coatClean hocks and hindquartersFormed stoolsFreedom from scabs, sores, abscesses, etc.Normal gaitAbnormalOff-feedLethargicPoor body conditionRunny, red, or swollen eyes. Pale eyelids.Colored discharge from noseHead and/or ears handing downDroopy tail (goats)Rough hair coatScabs, abscesses, sores.Soiled hindquartersRunny or liquid feces; blood or mucous in fecesAbnormal gait
5 What is normal? Parameter Sheep Goats Rectal Temperature Ruminations avg. 102°F ( °F)°FRuminations2 per minute1-2 per minuteRespiration12 to 20 breaths per minute15 to 30 breaths per minutePulse70 to 80 beats per minute70 to 90 beats per minuteHematocrit (packed cell volume)27 to 45% avg. 35%22 to 28% avg. 28%
6 Assessing body condition an estimate of fat and muscle It is a subjective score. The exact score is not as important as the relative scores and differences between scores.Both the vertical bone protrusion (spinous process) and horizontal protrusion (transverse process) of the loin are felt and used to access body condition scoring.
8 Skin diseases: soremouth contagious ecthyma, contagious pustular dermatitis, scabby mouth, orf Most common skin problem in sheep/goatsCaused by a virus in the pox family.Highly contagious to other sheep/goats, as well as to people.Lesions most commonly seen on mouth and lips. blisters → ulcers → scabsClears up in 1-4 weeks.
10 Skin diseases: ringworm Club lamb fungus Caused by a fungus.Very contagious.Can be transmitted to humans.Transmitted by animal, equipment, or surroundings.Slick shearing makes lambs more susceptible.Causes skin lesions.Definitive diagnosis is made by culturing the fungus.Heals on its own in 8 to 16 weeks.
12 Foot rot and foot scaldFoot rot is caused by the interaction of two anaerobic bacteria and is highly contagious.Foot scald involves only one bacteria and is not contagious.Primary symptom is lameness in one or more feet.They appear the same until you examine the feet.Foot rot infection is in hoof vs. foot scald which is between toes.Foot rot has a characteristic foul odor.
13 Abscesses Disease of concern: Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) Disease has internal and external form.Abscesses at lymph-gland sites.Caused by a bacteria.Very contagious.No human cases have been reported in U.S.
14 Pinkeye Infectious keratoconjunctivitis An inflammation of the inside of the eyelid.Usually bacterial in cause (chlamydia, mycoplasma).Different from pinkeye in cattle.Usually infectious and contagious to other sheep and goats.Symptoms: watery, red, swollen yes; formation of new blood vessels’ cloudiness in white part of eyes; tearing; and crusting (yellow or green pus).Mild cases heal in 10 to 14 days; severe cases may take 6 weeks to heal.
15 Respiratory symptoms Infectious Non-infectious Pneumonia Allergy Dust Symptoms to look forElevated body temperatureYellowish dischargeHeavy, labored breathingChest congestionNon-infectiousAllergyDustPoor ventilationNasal botsLung wormsA clear, bilateral, watery nasal discharge is relatively common, especially in sheep, usually due to poor ventilation and/or temperature fluctuations.
16 Internal parasites (GI worms) are the primary health problem affecting sheep and goats. The barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) is the worm of primary concern.The barber pole worm is a blood-sucking parasite that causes blood and protein loss (anemia) and edema (“bottle jaw”).Worms have developed resistance to most of the anthelmintics (dewormers).
18 Diarrhea – Scours Increased frequency, fluidity, or volume of fecal excretion. Non-infectiousParasitesNutritionalManagementStressInfectiousBacterialE. coliSalmonellaViralProtozoaCoccidiaCyrptosporidiaGiardiaNormal stool is hard round balls”, but feeding can alter consistency.
19 Rectal prolapse (lambs) Multi-factorial problemSex (female)High level of grain feedingStrainingGeneticsShort tail docksCan repair prolapse, but animal is usually salvaged.
20 Heat stroke/exhaustion High temperatures + high humidity PreventionTransport and work during cool part of day.Clean, fresh drinking water.Fans.TreatmentCooling therapyShade, ventilationSpray with water (cold water may be too much of a shock).Wet head, legs, and stomachRubbing alcohol to the area between the hind legs.Do not soak a wooled sheep with cold water to attempt to cool them.Fluids, drugsSymptomsRapid breathing.Panting.Collapse.Inability to standElevated rectal temperature, over 104°F; critical over 105°F.
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