Presentation on theme: "Sulfite 2- (Sulfite) (SO 3 ) 2- Often listed in ingredients as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ); however, in contact with water this becomes sulfurous acid (H 2."— Presentation transcript:
sulfite 2- (Sulfite) (SO 3 ) 2- Often listed in ingredients as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ); however, in contact with water this becomes sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), which in water breaks into 2H + and (SO 3 ) 2- (sulfite). Preservative and antioxidant in food and wine. 2- sulfate Over exposure to sulfites in food may cause an asthmatic attack. 1 out 100 people are sensitive to sulfite causing allergic reactions. Some people have died. A. Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 or 2H + + SO 4 2- (Sulfate) B. Calcium sulfate CaSO 4 (Gypsum-drywall) (White Sands, NM) (casts) C. Magnesium Sulfate MgSO 4 (Epson salts) D. Barium Sulfate BaSO 4 (contrast medium for xrays) E. Copper sulfate is an algaecide. - - - - - - - + Ammonia (NH 3 ) and Ammonium (NH 4 ) + Ammonia is created in the body from digestion of proteins and amino acids. If theres an excess of nitrogen, the body converts it to urea, which is less toxic. Urea is expelled in the urine. Some babies are born without the enzymes to convert ammonia to urea, so they develop hyperammonemia, which is fatal or will cause brain damage. Ammonium nitrate: Fertilizer, explosives Ammonium chloride: conducts electricity inside dry- cell batteries. Also used in cough medicines to hide the taste of bitter tasting medicines. - - + An acid A will give a proton (hydrogen nucleus) to ammonia to make the ammonium ion - - - - Acetic acid splits into acetate (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) - and H + Sodium acetate Na C 2 H 3 O 2 is used for instant heating pads. By breaking a capsule a seed crystal of sodium acetate allows the crystallization of the supercooled liquid sodium acetate. Calcium acetate Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 is used as a thickener in batters, butter, puddings, pie fillers. It also is used to adjust acidity (pH) of foods and to preserve foods. Ammonium acetate NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 is used in permanent waves products. Acetic acid (vinegar) splits into acetate (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) - and H +. Other compounds replace H + with a different positive ion. Cellulose acetate made from acetic acid and cellulose (wood fiber) used to make clear plastic, fabrics, and movie film (celluloid) Zinc acetate in lozenges to fight colds.
chlorite chlorate perchlorate hypochlorite chlorine Chlorine/Oxygen polyatomic ions Chlorine combines with itself by sharing its 7 th valence electron. However, oxygen has 6 valence electrons, so one more electron is needed to complete the shell of eight Chlorate & perchlorate are strong oxidizers, meaning they can provide oxygen to accelerate combustion. On heating, metallic chlorates & perchlorates turn into salt plus oxygen, useful for fireworks & explosives There is a mineral called chlorite, but it has no chlorite in it. Ammonium perchlorate is in explosives and rocket propellant. Sodium hypochlorite is the active ingredient of household bleach. - - - Cl 2 (ClO) - (ClO 2 ) - (ClO 3 ) - (ClO 4 ) - Nitrite Nitrate N 2 (NO 2 ) - (NO 3 ) - Nitrates and nitrites are results of waste decomposition. They contaminate the ground water. They can also form from NO and NO 2 gas pollution. They are oxidizers. Ammonium nitrate is used as fertilizer and explosive Too much nitrate in rivers and lakes... High nitrate levels in drinking water can harm infants. Nitrate is converted into nitrite by bacteria that survives in infants stomachs causing blue baby syndrome...accelerate algae growth which chokes other life. Potassium nitrate is an ingredient of gunpowder - - - cyanide CN - Gas chambers used a pesticide called Zyklon B, which decomposed to HCN. First used in camps to delouse and for Typhus. Cyanide CN - is found in solution. Hydrogen cyanide HCN is the gas. hydrogen cyanide HCN The seeds and pits of apricots, cherries, almonds, peaches, and apples contain amygdalin. Inside the intestine bacteria can convert this to cyanide. Under the name of Laetrile, amygdalin has been proposed as a treatment for cancer, but the medical community has rejected this claim. Cassava is an important food source for 500 million people, but the roots contain a substance that, when eaten, can trigger the production of cyanide. Only proper cooking can neutralize the substance. In the past, potassium nitrate was extracted from barnyard soils and used in gunpowder - - Sodium (or potassium) nitrite and nitrate are food preservatives