Presentation on theme: "Polyatomic ions Poly = Many Atomic = having to do with atoms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Polyatomic ions Poly = Many Atomic = having to do with atoms ions = having a charge + or –
2 Nomenclature A System of Naming Compounds Compounds are two or more atoms of different elements bonded together.Even though the gases O2, N2, F2, and Cl2 travel in pairs, their names are simply oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine.
3 What’s in a name?When two people use different names for the same thing, misunderstood words are apt to happen. The British and Americans often get confused
13 Coil of wirebattery_+_+compassCopper (II) Chloride
14 _ + _ + Coil of wire battery compass If copper atoms are going to the negative side, what charge do they have?What about the chlorine atoms?Coil of wirebattery_+_+compassCopper Chloride
15 _ + _ + Coil of wire battery compass Since the atoms wandered towards each side, let’s call them IONS from the Greek word, ion, meaning wanderer.Coil of wirebattery_+_+compass++++Copper Chloride
16 Also, since the positive side of a battery is called the anode (way up), we’ll call ions that go towards it anions.Since the negative side of a battery is called the cathode (way down), we’ll call ions that go towards it cations._+anodecathode_+anodecathode++++CationsAnions++++Copper Chloride CuCl2
17 Swedish scientist, Arrhenius tried the same experiment without water. _+anodecathode_+Sodium Chloride NaClanodecathode
18 When the sodium chloride melted, it began to conduct current and a gas formed at the anode and a gray metal formed on the cathode._+anodecathode_+Sodium Chloride NaClanodecathode
19 This year, 1891, I’d like to introduce a new word This year, 1891, I’d like to introduce a new word. I want a name for whatever atoms possess that allow them to carry a charge. I want to call them electrons.I picked the word, electron, because the Greek word for amber is Elektron.
20 Amber is tree sap from an extinct tree that has been buried for a long time and hardened. You can often see pieces of plant material and insects like ants or mosquitoes in amber. Also, our ancestors found that if you rubbed amber with fur you get what we now call static electricity.
21 The word electricity comes from the Latin word, electricus, which means that which is produced when amber is rubbed. The word, electricity was introduced in 1645.
22 We learned how to make electricity and learned some of its behavior We learned how to make electricity and learned some of its behavior. We also believed that it was something separate from matter.However, now I believe electricity is possible because atoms have what I’m calling electrons in them which gets involved when there’s electricity flowing.
23 Atoms have one or more electrons I propose a new quality to be added to atoms.Atoms have one or more electronselectronelectronelectronelectronMendeleyev did not believe electrons were part of the atom
24 Electrons are in “orbit” around the nucleus. +++
25 Updated view of the structure of the atom. The atom is no longer considered indivisible.However, we are still keeping the name atom.One reason it’s not indivisible is that we can strip off electrons from atoms using high voltage.
26 If you take a glass tube and pump out most of the air and apply high voltage, electrons will leave the negative side and fly to the the positive side. We call this stream of electrons, cathode rays._+XraysCathode Ray Tube (CRT)
27 Polyatomic ions Poly = Many Atomic = having to do with atoms ions = having a charge + or –How do more than one atom come together?
29 sulfite-2OSOSOO-SO(Sulfur dioxide) Occurs naturally in the atmosphere and as a pollutant gas from combustion of fuels with sulfur. Sulfur dioxide is one cause of acid rain.It is also used as a bleach, disinfectant and refrigerant. Used as a preservative in wine for its antibacterial properties, and as a bleaching agent in flour. Sulfur dioxide may be used to fumigate fruit and vegetables to extend their shelf life.
30 sulfite-2OOOSSSOSOOOOO(Sulfite) Used to sterilize fermentation equipment and food containers, as well as for its antimicrobial properties. Generally meat, cereals and dairy products may not be treated with it as it destroys thiamine (vitamin B1) content. Over exposure to sulfites in food may cause an asthmatic attack.1 out 100 people are sensitive to sulfite causing allergic reactions. Some people have died.
31 Sulfate O O O O S O S S O S O S O O O O O O -2 -2 sulfiteSulfate-2sulfate-2OOOOSOSSOSOSOOOOOOSulfuric Acid 2H+ + SO4-2Calcium sulfate (Gypsum-drywall) (White Sands, NM)Magnesium Sulfate (Epson salts)Barium Sulfate (contrast medium for xrays)Copper sulfate is an algaecide.
32 O O O Cl O Cl O O Cl Cl Cl O O Cl O O O Cl O chlorite chlorate perchloratehypochloriteOOOClOOClOClClClOOClOOOOCl
33 OOCl4-5 million pounds per day Chlorine dioxide for disinfecting drinking water, bleaching paper pulp, treating foods such as shrimp, fruits, vegetables, flour.Sanitizing food processing equipment.Chlorine dioxide used to sterilize water in water treatment plants.Chlorine dioxide was used to fumigate Fed buildings for anthrax. It was created at the site.
34 O O O O Cl O Cl O Cl Cl Cl O O Cl O O chlorateperchloratechloriteOOhypochloriteOClOOClOClClClOOClOOChlorate & perchlorate strong oxidizersMetallic chlorates/perchlorates turn into salt plus oxygen.Fireworks & explosives
36 Carbonates-2CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 -> H+ + HCO3-1 -> 2H+ + CO3-2OImportant in the body to maintain correct pH in blood. Not enough breathing and CO2 levels rise leading to more acidity and condition called acidosis. Hyperventilation and too much CO2 being expelled leads to condition of alkalosis.-CO-OThis same reaction happens in making carbonated drinks. Compressed CO2 is bubbled through water making carbonic acid.
37 Carbonates-2CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 -> H+ + HCO3-1 -> 2H+ + CO3-2O-CaCO3 is a common mineral. One form is calcite. It is often created by marine life. Coral is mostly CaCO3 (calcium carbonate) and is used as a calcium supplement. TUMS is also calcium carbonate and is promoted as acid neutralizer and calcium supplementCO-O
38 N-AMMONIAAmmonia is created in the body from digestion of proteins and aminoacids. If there’s an excess of nitrogen, the body converts it to urea, which is less toxic. Urea is expelled in the urine.Some babies are born without the enzymes to convert ammonia to urea, so they develop hyperammonemia, which is fatal or will cause brain damage.Ammonia is formed when animal waste is decomposed by bacteria.
39 AMMONIA +Water = Ammonium Hydroxide -+1--ON--Ammonia added to water will form ammonium hydroxide (cleaning “ammonia”)Ammonium nitrate: Fertilizer, explosives Ammonium chloride: conducts electricity inside dry-cell batteries. Also used in cough medicines to hide the taste of bitter tasting medicines.
40 Acetic Acid (vinegar) Acetate C C O O -1 When hydrogen proton comes off or reacts with something, its electron is left behind. This makes the remaining molecule negatively charged. It then becomes the acetate ion. The negatively charged acetate ion is then attracted to anything positive, such as metals that have lost an electron.
41 Sodium acetate is used for instant heating pads By breaking a capsule a seed crystal of sodium acetate allows the crystallization of the supercooled liquid sodium acetate.Zinc acetate in lozenges to fight colds.Acetate-1-CCO--Na-OCalcium acetate is used as a thickener in batters, butter, puddings, pie fillers. It also is used to adjust acidity (pH) of foods and to preserve foods.Ammonium acetate is used in permanent waves and haircare products.
42 AcetateCellulose acetate made from acetic acid and cellulose (wood fiber) used to make clear plastic, fabrics, and movie film (celluloid)-1-CCO---O
43 bicarbonate-1Baking soda is Sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3. This reacts with acids in the food to form carbon dioxide gas to get the batter to rise. NaHCO3 + H+ -> Na+ + H2O + CO2(gas) Baking powder has its own acids to help the reaction to take place.-OCOO-To reduce acidity in the blood, sometimes sodium or potassium bicarbonate are injected into patients that have developed diabetes induced acidosis. Other conditions that cause acidosis may also be treated by bicarbonates.
44 phthalate phthalic acid diethyl phthalate: Plasticizer: Softens polyvinyl chloride plaster for chew toys and for saran wrap. Also used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food wrapping. Concern over it leaching into food.Tygon tubing. PVC softened with below ester used for surgical tubing. Good for contact with blood and pumps. Also wound drainage.
46 AcetateSodium acetate is used for instant heating pads By breaking a capsule a seed crystal of sodium acetate allows the crystallization of the supercooled liquid sodium acetate.Think of the thermal pack as a kind of rechargeable heat battery. In its cool state, the pack holds a liquid solution of sodium acetate -- a type of salt -- and water. A small metal disc about the size of a dime floats inside. Snap the disk and the pack changes within seconds from a clear, cool liquid to a hot, crystalline solid that can stay warm for hours. To use it again, boil the hard pack in water for about 10 minutes until it melts and let it cool. What's going on? Palca explains by beginning at the end. Boiling the hard pack melts the crystals and forces the sodium acetate back into a liquid. In this liquid state, the sodium acetate stores the heat from the boiling process. Under normal circumstances, sodium acetate solution turns back into a solid when it cools. But it's possible to keep it in liquid form as long as it's kept in a smooth pouch with nothing inside to which the sodium acetate molecules can adhere. This prevents crystals from forming and changing the liquid into a solid. Twisting the disk ignites a kind of chain reaction: a single crystal forms and then the rest of the sodium acetate rushes to crystallize. The chemical energy released as the crystals form is given off as heat. Essentially, the pack is a rechargeable battery: Boiling the pack recharges it by restoring heat to the solution.Zinc acetate in lozenges to fight colds.Sodium acetate Is employed in diuretic expectorant and systemic alkalizers, and for kidney dialysis processes.C-OCalcium acetate is used as a thickener in batters, butter, puddings, pie fillers. It also is used to adjust acidity (pH) of foods and to preserve foods.Ammonium acetate is used in permanent waves and haircare products.Cellulose acetate made from acetic acid and cellulose (wood fiber) used to make clear plastic, fabrics, and movie film (celluloid)
47 AMMONIA & AMMONIUM N N O - - - - - +1 Ammonium nitrate: Fertilizer, explosives Ammonium chloride: conducts electricity inside dry-cell batteries; also used in cough medicines to hide the taste of bitter tasting medicines.--ON--Ammonia added to water will form ammonium hydroxide (cleaning “ammonia”)Ammonia is created in the body from digestion of proteins and aminoacids. In water, ammonia pulls off a hydrogen nucleus from water and becomes positively charge. If there’s an excess of nitrogen, the body converts it to urea, which is less toxic. Urea is expelled in the urine.Some babies are born without the enzymes to convert ammonia to urea, so they develop hyperammonemia, which is fatal or will cause brain damage.Ammonia is formed when animal waste is decomposed by bacteria.
48 O O O Cl O Cl O O Cl Cl Cl O O Cl O O O Cl O perchlorate chlorate Chlorate & perchlorate strong oxidizers: Metallic chlorates/perchlorates turn into salt plus oxygen.chlorateperchloratechloriteOhypochloriteOOClOOClOClClClOOClOOOne source showed resonance of Cl double bond to Oxygen with one free electron (another source said this is wrong)ClO2, a radical, undergoes photodecomposition in the stratosphere where the products of this reaction react with ozone.Mineral called “chlorite” but there’s no chlorine in itFormed when chlorine dioxide hits waterS2 not involved?The oxidation level of the chlorine atom in chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is +4, while in elemental chlorine (Cl2) the oxidation level of the chlorine atom is +1.ClO2, a radical, undergoes photodecomposition in the stratosphere where the products of this reaction react with ozone.4-5 million pounds per day Chlorine dioxide for disenfecting drinking water, bleaching paper pulp, treating foods such as shrimp, fruits, vegetabls, flour.Sanitizing food processing equipment. (USPS)ClOOChlorine dioxide used to sterilize water in water treatment plants.Also to bleach paperChlorine dioxide was used to fumigate Fed buildings for anthrax. It was created at the site. The USpostal Service also show this lewis structure.
49 OOCONOOONONNOOOOOne source said oxygen was two radicals(2 unpaired electrons), which is why is can support combustion so well and that the magnetic resonance show that it is a triplet.OOO
50 Historically it was considered one of the four alchemical "spirits" Historically it was considered one of the four alchemical "spirits". In modern times it found use as an electrolyte for batteries, and as cough medicine flavoring to hide the taste of some medicines, and as a fluid retentative agent. Sal Ammoniac was named after it was observed in the Temple of Zeus-Ammon in Egypt, it's name means "salt of Ammon". It was the white crystaline substance that remained on the ceiling and walls after camel dung was burned. The modern name "ammonium" comes from Sal Ammoniac.In classical times, sal ammoniac was discovered by accident through burning the dung of camels in the temple of Jupiter Ammon at Siwa oasis in Libya."Ammonia" is a genus name in the Foraminifera (marine planktonic protozoa with a calcium carbonate shell, whose remains have contributed to limestone and chalk deposits), and "ammonites" are an extinct group of cephalopod whose fossil shells are abundant from the Paleozoic. In both cases, the shell is formed of a series of chambers, arranged in a spiral, and the name is given for the "Horn of Ammon", the ram's horns that the god by whose temple the ammoniacal camel dung was to be found (see above) was supposed to have had.In the Bible it is related that, Jephthah smote the Ammonites, with the help of God, who accepted Jepthah's daughter, as a burned offering, as compensation (Book of Judges). Presumably, these Ammonites (descendants of the offspring of Lot and his daughter) were followers of the same horny deity.
51 HHHCCOHHHRelatively stable, persistent free radical compounds include Fremys salt (Potassium nitrosodisulfonate, (KSO3)2NO·)and nitroxides, (general formula R2NO·).Free radicals play an important role in a number of biological processes, some of which are necessary for life. However, because of their reactivity, these same free radicals can participate in unwanted side reactions resulting in cell damage. Some forms of cancer are the result of reactions between free radicals and DNA, resulting in cancerous cell mutations. Some of the symptoms of ageing such as atherosclerosis are also attributed to free-radical induced oxidation of many of the chemicals making up the body. In addition free radicals contribute to alcohol-induced liver damage, perhaps more than alcohol itself. Radicals in cigarette smoke have been implicated in inactivation of an antiprotease in the lung, which leads to the development of emphysema.Because free radicals are necessary for life, the body has a number of mechanisms to minimize free radical induced damage and to repair damage which does occur. Antioxidants play a key role in these defense mechanisms
52 H C N O H H C H H N O H N O H Nitroxide-a stable free radical Molecular Orbital Theory says why? if I could understand it.Molecular Orbital Theory says why? if I could understand it.
53 (Sulfur dioxide) Occurs naturally in the atmosphere and as a pollutant gas from combustion processes, sulphur dioxide is implicated in formation of acid rain and has a choking odour. It is commercially produced either by combustion of sulphur, hydrogen sulphide or gypsum. Most industrially produced sulphur dioxide is used in the production of sulphuric acid, but it is also used as a bleach, disinfectant and refrigerant. Used as a preservative in wine for its antibacterial properties, and as a bleaching agent in flour. Sulphur dioxide may be used to fumigate fruit and vegetables to extend their shelf life. Sulphur dioxide may not be used for foods containing a significant amount of thiamine, as this is destroyed by the gas.The sodium salt of sulphurous acid. Used to sterilize fermentation equipment and food containers, as well as for its antimicrobial properties. Generally meat, cereals and dairy products may not be treated with E221 as it destroys thiamine content. Over exposure to sulfites in food may cause an asthmatic attack.
54 Today, ammonium perchlorate and the other perchlorate salts are used in a wide range of applications, including pyrotechnics and fireworks, blasting agents, matches, lubricating oils, textile dye fixing, nuclear reactors, tanning and finishing leather, rubber manufacturing, electroplating, aluminum refinishing, automobile air bag inflators, paint and enamel production, and pharmaceuticals (3). The most common use for ammonium perchlorate is in explosives and rocket propellant. Because it has a limited shelf life, the ammonium perchlorate used in the nation's rocket and missile supply must occasionally be replaced. As a result, large amounts of the compound are periodically disposedperchlorate. Because of its easy solubility it gets into the ground water easily as is a concern for toxicity of water.
55 O O O S S O O Na O O Na O S O S O Bisulfite ion? ^ SO2 + H2O + O2 > Na metabisulfite
56 Sulfates (tetrahedral to 4 oxygens) Magnesium Sulfate is Epsom saltsSulfuric acidCopper sulfate is a algeacideMost sulfates are soluble except for CaSO4, SrSO4, and BaSO4BaSO4 used in xrays as contrasting medium.
57 H O O H O S O S O O H O H O O O H S O O H - SO2 + H2O + O2 > sulfuric acidThis also shows the anti-oxidant nature of SO2SOOHSO2 dissolves in water makes sulfurous acid(sulfite + 2H+)
58 Chromate (chromium color) Lead chromate was used in yellow, red, and orange paints. But was outlawed for use in homes because of lead poisoning as children chewed on peeling paint.chromate CrO4 2- yellowdichromate Cr2O72- orangeCr+3 is greenPotassium dichromate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is the preferred compound for cleaning laboratory glassware of any possible organics.
59 It's found naturally in foods like spinach, lettuce, beets, and carrots.Where nitrate comes fromIt is often difficult to pinpoint where the nitrate in drinking water comes from because there are so many possibilities. The source of nitrate and nitrogen may be from runoff or seepage from fertilized soil, municipal or industrial wastewater, landfills, animal feed lots, septic systems, urban drainage, or decaying plant material.Health concernsHigh nitrate levels in drinking water can pose a special risk for infants. When an infant takes in nitrate, it's converted into another compound called nitrite. Nitrite causes the hemoglobin in the blood to change into a substance called methemoglobin. This reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen, causing a condition known as methemoglobinemia, or "blue baby syndrome."When this happens, the skin turns blue -- similar in color to the blood vessels under the skin. Medical treatment should be sought immediately for this condition. Prompt medical attention usually results in a quick recovery. In severe cases, nitrate poisoning can be fatal.Why are infants more susceptible?Adults can take in large amounts of nitrate without any harm. Infants are more susceptible partly because their stomach juices are less acidic. That promotes the growth of a certain kind of bacteria which converts the nitrate into nitrite.Infants under six months of age are the most susceptible. Older children are rarely affected because of developmental changes that occur as they grow. Women who are pregnant already have elevated methemoglobin levels in their blood. That may make them more susceptible to methemoglobinemia after the 30th week of pregnancy
60 Phosphate + Phosphite Phosphorus (light bringer: glows in dark) phosphorus was first isolated in 1669 by Hennig Brand, a German physician and alchemist, by boiling, filtering and otherwise processing as many as 60 buckets of urine. Thankfully, phosphorus is now primarily obtained from phosphate rock (Ca3(PO4)2).Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is used in soft drinks and to create many phosphate compounds, such as triple superphosphate fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O). Trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4) is used as a cleaning agent and as a water softener. Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is used to make china and in the production of baking powder. Some phosphorus compounds glow in the dark or emit light in response to absorbing radiation and are used in fluorescent light bulbs and television sets.-3-3--OOPOOPO--OO--Phosphorous acid use in agroculture, antiscale and corrosionTrialkyl phosphates (RO)3P for plasticizers, flame retardants, antifoams, Diakly hydrogen phosphates used in lubricants
61 Phosphate + Phosphitean effervescent drink of carbonated water with a small amount of phosphoric acid flavored with fruit syrupadenosine triphosphate (commonly called ATP) is the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfers. It is a means of storing and transporting chemical energy within the cell and a precursor for RNA formation.In a biochemical setting, a free phosphate ion in solution is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in the form of ATP,In living systems, phosphate ions can also be created by the hydrolysis of a larger ion called pyrophosphate, which has the structure P2O74-, and is denoted PPi.P2O74- + H2O → 2HPO42-In ecological terms, phosphate is often a limiting reagent in many environments--the availability of phosphate governs the rate of growth of many organisms. Introduction of non-naturally occurring levels of phosphate to those environments causes an ecological disequilibrium, leading to booms in the population of some organisms and subsequent busts in the populations of others deprived of other nutrients or essential elements by the rapid growth and consumption by the booming population.
62 White phosphorus glows in dark when exposed to the air White phosphorus glows in dark when exposed to the air. Instantly flammable, and is poisonous. red phosphorus is less reactive and not poisonous.Phosphate rocks are heated and vaporized. The condensate is white phosphorus.In order to glow, a product must contain a phosphor. A phosphor is a substance made up of specialized particles that radiate (send out) visible light after being energized. Phosphors can be charged in many different ways. Light, special types of radiation, and even electron beams, can energize different phosphors. What you most commonly see in glow-in-the-dark toys is either a substance called zinc sulfide or strontium aluminates. These two substances can be charged by light radiation and have a long persistence. The persistence of a phosphor is the length of time it stays aglow. The major difference between these two substances is that strontium aluminates glow for a longer period of time than zink sulfide.
63 Phosphates are utilized in the making of special glasses that are used for sodium lamps. Bone-ash, calcium phosphate, is used in the production of fine china and to make mono-calcium phosphate which is employed in baking powder.This element is also an important component in steel production, in the making of phosphor bronze, and in many other related products.Trisodium phosphate is widely used in cleaning agents to soften water and for preventing pipe/boiler tube corrosion.White phosphorus is used in military incendiaries, smoke pots, smoke bombs and tracer bullets.Miscellaneous uses; used in the making of safety matches, pyrotechnics, pesticides, toothpaste, detergentsetc.
64 PhosphatesThe experimental alum-dosing facility for Fish Lake was not operated in 2001 after contributing last year to the best average water clarity (6.8 feet) in Fish Lake since In 2001, the City collected field data to determine additional effects of the operation while investigating short- and long-term operation and maintenance strategies. The facility injects alum, a compound that inactivates phosphorus, into the major stormwater trunk to the lake. Phosphorus is the leading nutrient contributing to algae growth in lakes.
65 Phosphate is component of teeth and bones. apatite is Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl About a 100 different minerals contain phosphate. One is turquoise.CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8*5(H2O), Hydrated Copper Aluminum PhosphateThe Shocking History of Phosphorus tells the human stories to be found in the history of this element in the 300 years since its discovery. The book includes tales of the alchemist who first found it, the doctors who prescribed it as a cure for most ailments including male impotence, the famous match-girls and their strike, the Salvation Army's struggle to ban it, Operation Gomorrah which reduced its birthplace to rubble, the industry which made it and the fishy end it came to, the use of phosphorus to make food additives and detergents and the pollution they caused, spectacular accidents, the role assigned it by Nature, and finally its release as phosphane and diphosphane gases as the possible explanation of various supernatural phenomena.
66 Arsenate O O O As O As O O O - - - - - - Arsenic is chemically very similar to its predecessor phosphorus, so much so that it will partly substitute for it in biochemical reactions and is thus poisonous. It is in the same group as phosphorus.-3-3--OOOAsO-AsO-OO--Metal salts of arsenate are used as insecticidesCalcium, lead, or copper arsenate. Potassium or sodium arsenite
67 arsenateAn arsenic atom will readily combine with four oxygen atoms to form the arsenate molecule. The arsenate molecule is a chemical look-alike to the phosphate molecule, similarly formed from phosphorous and oxygen. Phosphorous is an important element for living organisms. It forms nerve tissue, bones and teeth. Also, it makes up a part of the membrane tissue that surrounds living cells and transports the energy that fuels muscle contraction.The cells recognize the shape of the phosphate molecule and readily absorb it. Unfortunately, the shape of arsenate is so nearly identical that cells do not distinguish between arsenate and phosphate. Thus, if substantial concentrations of arsenate are provided to the body, the damaging arsenate is taken into cells instead of the phosphate which the cells need. This substitution of the bad for the good perhaps explains why arsenic poisoning can retain its latency over the years, especially in children since their bodies are rapidly growing.
68 Arsenate (arsenic: yellow pigment) Roger Smith, Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology Emeritus, Dartmouth Medical School, has stated that natural arsenic contamination of drinking water has been a problem in wells in Bangladesh and New Hampshire. The Bangladesh well poisoning is a particularly difficult problem: millions of people take their drinking water from wells that were drilled through arsenic-bearing rock layers. Chronic low level arsenic poisoning as in Bangladesh results in the victim developing cancer.There is a theory that Napoleon Bonaparte suffered from arsenic poisoning, and samples of his hair did show high levels of the element. This, however, does not imply deliberate poisoning by Napoleon's enemies: Copper arsenate has been used as a pigment in some wallpapers, and microbiological liberation of the arsenic into the immediate environment would be possible. The case is equivocal, in the absence of clearly authenticated samples of the wallpaper.Even without contaminated wallpaper, there are many other routes by which he could have picked up arsenic: arsenic was used medicinally for centuries and, in fact, was used extensively to treat syphilis before penicillin was introduced; it was replaced for treating other conditions by sulfa drugs and then by antibiotics. Arsenic was an ingredient in many tonics (or "patent medicines"), just as coca (unrefined cocaine) was an ingredient in Coca-Cola when it was introduced.A later case of arsenic poisoning is that of Claire Booth Luce, the American ambassador to Italy in the years just following World War II; she suffered an increasing variety of physical and psychological symptoms until arsenic poisoning was diagnosed, and its source traced to the old, arsenic-laden flaking paint on the ceiling of her bedroom. Another source (http://www.dartmouth.edu/~toxmetal/TXSHas.shtml) explains her poisoning as resulting from eating food contaminated by flaking of the ceiling of the embassy dining room. She did not die from her poisoning.(chemotherapy) Arsenic trioxide has been used in hematology to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia that are resistant to ATRA treatment
69 Cyanide C N C N N N - - Hydrogen cyanide gas -1 Gas chambers used a pesticide called Zyklon B, which decomposed to HCN. First used to delouse and for Typhus.Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 This is Prussian blue (German uniforms.
70 printing inks, paints, typewriter ribbons, and in carbon paper. Prussian (PRUSH-en) blue is used to treat thallium poisoning and radiocesium poisoning. It works by combining with thallium and radiocesium in the intestines. The combination is then removed from the body through the stools. By removing the thallium or radiocesium, the medicine lessens damage to your body's organs and tissues.Potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O), also known as yellow prussiate of potash, is a coordination compound forming lemon-yellow monoclinic crystals at room temperature and decomposing at its boiling point. It is insoluble in alcohol but a litre of water can dissolve just under 300g of the crystals, and the solution can be reduced with acid to release cyanide gas. The resulting hydrogen cyanide (HCN) boils at 26C and, being lighter than air, quickly evaporates clear of the release point.On February 20, 2002 four Moroccans were arrested while in possession detailed maps of the US embassy in Rome, the Rome water supply network, and four kilograms of potassium ferrocyanide
71 Certain rare plants containing cyanide include apricot pits and a type of potato called cassava. The supposed cancer-fighting substance called laetrile (made from apricot pits) used to be sold to desperate cancer patients by unscrupulous individuals. Ironically, laetrile, in addition to being useless against cancer, can also lead to cyanide poisoning. Fortunately, only chronic or massive ingestion of any of these plants can lead to serious poisoning.Laetrile and bitter almond have been associated with serious toxicity and are considered to be unsafe because of their potential to cause cyanide poisoning. Symptoms of cyanide poisoning in people who used laetrile have included headache, dilated pupils, seizures, muscle spasms, difficulty breathing, metabolic abnormalities, shock, coma and death. Other adverse effects from high doses of bitter almond or laetrile include dizziness, confusion, drooping of the eyelids, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting and rare types of anemia and other blood cell disorders. Drowsiness or sedation may occur. Use caution if you are driving or operating heavy machinery.Prunus species, including, apricots, cherries, almonds, and peaches, as well as apples. All of these seeds and pits contain amygdalin. You may have heard of amygdalin as a component of Laetrile, an "alternative" cancer treatment of no proven value that may be associated with cyanide poisoning. This harmless chemical lies inside the seed, but when the seed is moistened and crushed, it can be converted by bacteria in the intestinal tract or by an enzyme within the seed into cyanide.
72 Cassava is the third-most important food source in tropical countries, but it has one major problem: The roots and leaves of poorly processed cassava plants contain a substance that, when eaten, can trigger the production of cyanide. That’s a serious problem for the 500 million people who rely on cassava as their main source of calories, among them subsistence farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, said Richard Sayre, a professor of plant biology at Ohio State University. He and his colleague Dimuth Siritunga, a postdoctoral researcher in plant biology at the university, have created cyanogen-free cassava plants. A cyanogen is a substance that induces cyanide production. Their study appeared in a recent issue of the journal Planta. Cassava is a hardy plant – it can remain in the ground for up to two years and needs relatively little water to survive. It’s the key source of carbohydrates for subsistence farmers in Africa. But an unprocessed cassava plant contains potentially toxic levels of a cyanogen called linamarin. The proper processing of cassava – drying, soaking in water, rinsing or baking – effectively reduces cassava’s linamarin content. But, said Sayre, shortcut processing techniques, which are frequently used during famines, can yield toxic food products. “In Africa, improperly processed cassava is a major problem. It’s associated with a number of cyanide-related health disorders, particularly among people who are already malnourished.” Chronic, low-level cyanide exposure is associated with the development of goiter and with tropical ataxic neuropathy, a nerve-damaging disorder that renders a person unsteady and uncoordinated. Severe cyanide poisoning, particularly during famines, is associated with outbreaks of a debilitating, irreversible paralytic disorder called Konzo and, in some cases, death. The incidence of Konzo and tropical ataxic neuropathy can be as high as 3 percent in some areas. People who get little or no protein in their diets are particularly susceptible to cyanide poisoning, as they lack the proper amino acids necessary to help detoxify the poison.Ingested cyanide is converted to thiocyanate in the body, thus urinary thiocyanate gives a measure of cyanide intake over the preceding few days. We have developed Kit D1 (Haque and Bradbury, 1999b) for determination of thiocyanate in urine, which was successfully trialled in Mozambique in October 1999 (Ernesto et al. 2002a). There is a stepwise procedure Protocol D1 for the use of this kit. These kits are available free of charge to health workers and agriculturalists in developing countries.
73 OxalateOxalic acid occurs naturally in quite a large number of plants. The human body also synthesizes oxalic acid from ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). Oxalic acid may combine with calcium, iron, sodium, magnesium, or potassium to form less soluble salts known as oxalates. Oxalates also occur naturally in plants. Since oxalic acid binds with important nutrients, making them inaccessible to the body, regular consumption of large amounts of foods high in oxalic acid over a period of weeks to months may result in nutrient deficiencies, most notably of calcium. Oxalic acid is a strong acid, and is irritating to tissue all by itself. Extremely high doses are fatal. Oxalates, on the other hand, form tiny little insoluble crystals with sharp edges, which are also irritating to tissue. So, high levels of oxalic acid/oxalates in the diet lead to irritation of the digestive system, and particularly of the stomach and kidneys. They may also contribute to the formation of kidney stones (the most common form of kidney stone is composed of calcium oxalate). Foods containing these chemicals may be consumed in moderation. However, if you suffer from kidney disease, kidney stones, rheumatoid arthritis, or gout, it is usually recommended that you avoid foods that are high in oxalates or oxalic acid. Foods generally found on the list include: chocolate, cocoa, coffee, most berries (especially strawberries and cranberries), most nuts (especially peanuts), beans, beets, bell peppers, black pepper, parsley, rhubarb, spinach, swiss chard, summer squash, sweet potatoes, and tea. Plant foods with high concentrations of oxalic acid (over 200 ppm) include (but are not limited to): lamb's-quarter, buckwheat, star fruit, black pepper, purslane, poppy seeds, rhubarb, tea, spinach, plantains, cocoa and chocolate, ginger, almonds, cashews, garden sorrel, mustard greens, bell peppers, sweet potatoes, soybeans, tomatillos, beets and beet greens, oats, pumpkin, cabbage, green beans, mango, eggplant, tomatoes, lentils, and parsnips.
74 Dieffenbachia is a genus of tropical monocots with patterned leaves, also called dumb cane. Some members of this genus are grown as houseplants.Their sap is thick and contains huge quantities of needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals. When chewed or even just touched, the sap causes swelling and a burning sensation, and a temporary inability to speak. This is why it is called dumb cane. It can cause death if the swelling blocks the airway.Slaves were sometimes punished by having dieffenbachia put into their mouths.If you have this plant in your house or yard, wash your hands after handling it.