Presentation on theme: "This presentation was initially prepared for a Lambing and Kidding School held December 8, 2007 in Westminster, MD."— Presentation transcript:
This presentation was initially prepared for a Lambing and Kidding School held December 8, 2007 in Westminster, MD.
Feeding the pregnant and lactating female Susan Schoenian Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Western Maryland Research & Education Center
Todays presentation Nutrients Sources of nutrients Nutrient requirements Practical feeding recommendations for pregnant and lactating does Nutritional disorders related to lambing and kidding
Nutrients for sheep and goats Energy Protein Minerals Vitamins Water Roughage (fiber)
Energy Needed in the most amount. Usually the most limiting nutrient. Excess is stored as fat. Expressed as... TDN – total digestible nutrients (%) ME – metabolizable energy (mcal) NE for maintenance, growth, lactation, and fiber production (mcal)
Sources of Energy High Cereal grains (76-88%) Corn, barley, wheat, sorghum, rye, oats By-product feeds (76-90%) Soy hulls, distilers grains, corn gluten, wheat middlings Moderate Corn silage (65-72%) Haylage (50-60% Good quality pasture (60-70%) Good quality hay (50-60%) Low Low quality hay (40-50%) Low quality pasture (< 50%) Straw (40-48%) By-products (<40%) cottonseed hulls, peanut hulls, oat hulls
Protein Composed of amino acids. Bypass or escape protein increases protein efficiency. Quantity more important than quality. Usually most expensive ingredient. Excess protein is not stored in the body. It will be used inefficiently as energy. Excess N is an environmental concern.
Sources of protein Highest Protein meals (46-52%) Plant - soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal Fish meal (66%) Urea (NPN) (288%) Moderate Alfalfa and other legume hays (13-21%) Low Grass hay (10-12%) Cereal grains (8-14%) Lowest Poor quality hay (<10%) Straw (3-5%)
Minerals Required in small quantities (grams) Macro – salt, Ca, P, Mg, K, and S Micro (trace) – Se, I, Cu, Fe, Mo, Cr, F, Zn, and Mn Balance of minerals is important. Example: Ca:P Many interactions. Example: Cu-Mo-S Sources: Hay, pasture, grain Mineral mixes, blocks, tubs
Sources of calcium High Limestone (38%) Bonemeal (24%) Dicalcium phosphate (25%) Moderate Alfalfa and other legume hays and pasture ( %) Soybean hulls (0.55%) Grass hay and pasture ( %) Protein meals ( %) Poor Cereal grains ( %)
Vitamins Ruminants have a dietary requirement for Vitamin A, D, and E. Vitamin K and B-vitamins are manufactured by the rumen. No dietary requirement for Vitamin C or D. Sources of vitamins Natural sources Vitamin packs Mineral mixes, blocks, tubs
Manufactured feeds Blends of ingredients that are formulated to supply all (complete) or defined portions (supplement) of the requirements of targeted animal). Complete feeds Protein supplements or balancers Mineral mixes, blocks, tubs Use properly! More expensive, but convenient and properly balanced.
Water The most essential nutrient Intake (need) varies by... Moisture in feed Lactation (2-3 gal) > Gestation > Maintenance (1/2 to 1 gal) Late Gestation > Mid and early gestation Triplets, twins > single Sheep > goats Milk type sheep and goats > meat type Summer > winter
Roughage Should be primary source of feed intake. Maintains healthy rumen function. Less problems when sheep and goats are forage-fed. Minimum amount of roughage is ½ lb. per 100 lbs. of body weight.
Nutrient requirements depend on … Size (weight) Age Stage and level of production Climate and environment Body condition
Size (weight) Nutrient requirements for different mature size ewes in late gestation, carrying twin lambs. NRC, 1985
Size (weight) Nutrient requirements for different mature size females in late gestation, carrying twin lambs. NRC, 1985
Age Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes (132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate) Ewe lambs and doelings also have difficulty competing for feeder space. Ewe lambs require a more nutrient dense diet. NRC, 1985
Age Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes (132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate) Ewe lambs and doelings also have difficulty competing for feeder space. Ewe lambs require a higher percent of protein in their diets. NRC, 1985
Age Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes (132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate) Ewe lambs and doelings also have difficulty competing for feeder space. Ewe lambs require a higher percent of calcium in their diets. NRC, 1985
Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambs. NRC, 1985
Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambs, NRC, 1985
Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambs NRC, 1985
Level of Production Nutrient requirements of a 176-lb. lactating ewe. NRC, 2007
Level of Production Nutrient requirements of 176-lb. lactating ewe. NRC, 2007
Level of Production Nutrient requirements of 176-lb. lactating ewe. NRC, 2007
Climate and environment Below critical temperature, livestock must expend energy to keep warm. Wind and humidity, along with low temperatures increase body heat losses and increase energy requirements of livestock. A sheeps critical temperature depends upon the length of its fleece and its feeding program. 50ºF for freshly shorn sheep. 28ºF for sheep with 2.5 in. fleece
Climate and environment Below critical temperature, livestock must expend energy to keep warm. Critical temperature for beef cattle with a winter coat is 32ºF (61ºF if their coat is wet). There is a 1% increase in energy requirements for each 1ºF below the critical temperature. High quality hay is the preferred feed source because more body heat is produced when it is digested (vs. grain).
Effect of a lower critical temperature on the energy requirements of a goat needing 2.8 lbs. of TDN.
Exercise/Activity Nutrient requirements increase with exercise and activity. Nutrient requirements can be affected by travel distance and land topography. Exercise may be a function of forage availability. NRC requirements take into account normal exercise of grazing sheep. NRC requirements are for goats reared in confinement.
Body condition scoring (BCS) A valuable management tool that can be used to evaluate the feeding program and the need for changes. Body condition is a better indicator of condition than weight. The most important times to body condition score are breeding, late gestation, and weaning. Body condition scoring estimates fat and muscle on a scale of 1 to 5. Half scores are commonly used. The cattle system (1-9) can also be used. 1 BCS equals 13% of the live weight of a female in moderate condition (3-3.5). Exact score is not important as the relative scores and the differences between scores.
Body condition scoring 1 – emaciated 2 – thin 3 – average 4 – fat 5 – obese
Life cycle feeding of ewes and does Maintenance (dry period) Breeding Early pregnancy Mid-pregnancy Late pregnancy Early lactation Late lactation Weaning
Practical feeding recommendations for pregnant and lactating females Goal: feed proper amount and balance of nutrients. Quantity (lbs) more important that quality (%). Make forage the main part of the diet.
Practical feeding recommendations for pregnant and lactating females Balance ration (proper way) By hand (math) Simultaneous equations (Algebra) Pearson Square Use computer program Use spreadsheet Web-based ration balancing Feed by rule of thumb
Balance a ration 1) Know nutrient requirements of animals (NRC tables) 2) Know nutrient composition of feeds (test feed or use book values) 3) Determine how much hay you need to feed to meet the energy requirements. 4) Make sure the animal can consume the amount of hay that you calculate she needs by looking up dry matter intake in NRC table. 5) Calculate how much protein, Ca, and P the hay is providing. 6) Add supplement(s) to hay or pasture ration to provide the protein, Ca, and P that the hay lacks..
Start with forage Pasture, weeds, browse, hay, silage Feed supplements to provide nutrients that the forage is lacking. Feed supplement(s) to provide a more nutrient- dense diet. Feed supplement(s) to improve health and performance. Feed supplements to save money.
Feeding hay Hay varies tremendously in nutritive quality. Have your forage tested to determine its nutritive quality. Round bales are less expensive to purchase, but result in more wastage and nutrient loss. Theres less waste and more flexibility when feeding square bales, but they are more expensive. When hay is offered free choice, livestock often overeat.
Feeding according to rules of thumb Forage Feed 3 to 4 lbs. of grass hay (or pasture) during early and mid gestation. Feed 4 to 5 lbs. of average quality hay (or pasture) during late gestation. During late gestation, you may need to supplement Ca if feeding a grass hay (dont depend on free choice minerals). Save alfalfa hay for lactation when the females nutritional needs are the highest. Feed poor quality hay prior to and after weaning. Bigger amounts for big females and smaller amounts for smaller females.
Feeding according to rules of thumb Concentrate/grain No grain during early and mid pregnancy. Feed ½ to 1 lb. of grain per day to females during late gestation. Start with a ¼ lb. of grain and gradually increase amount of grain in diet. May need to feed more if you expect a birthing percentage greater than 200%. Grain can substitute for some of the hay in the ration, but be CAREFUL. Bigger amounts for big females and smaller amounts for smaller females.
Feeding according to rules of thumb After parturition Plenty of water. Warm water in winter. Forage for the first few days. Take about a week to get the ewe/doe on full feed.
Feeding according to rules of thumb Lactation Feed 4 to 5 lbs. of your best quality hay + 1 lb. of grain for each offspring the female is nursing. Separate females into production groups: singles, twins, and triplets. If feeding alfalfa hay or another legume, the grain can be whole corn or barley. If feeding grass hay, you will need to supplement protein and calcium in the grain ration. Bigger amounts for big females and smaller amounts for smaller females.
Additional tips for feeding Weigh feed. Dont rely on free choice minerals. Include Bovatec®, Rumensin® or Deccox® in ration to prevent coccidiosis. **They are toxic to equines** Feed whole grains. Split feedings if youre feeding a lot of grain. Separate animals into groups according to their nutritional needs. Feed and manage ewe lambs/doelings separate from mature females. Aim for moderate body condition scores.
Health risks related to lambing and kidding Influenced by nutrition and feeding: Pregnancy toxemia Milk fever Vaginal prolapse Abortion White muscle disease
Pregnancy toxemia Low blood glucose, ketosis, twin lamb disease, lambing paralysis, sleeping ewe sickness Symptoms [1-3 weeks before parturition] Lethargy Sluggishness Lack behind Failure to eat Recumbency Stiff gait Neurological dysfunction Coma death Differential diagnosis: milk fever
Pregnancy toxemia Low blood glucose, ketosis, twin lamb disease, lambing paralysis, sleeping ewe sickness Risk factors Inadequate nutrition insufficient energy density Multiple fetuses high energy demand by fetuses Obesity fat mobilization toxic ketone bodies Poor body condition Lack of exercise Stress Environment Severe weather conditions
Pregnancy toxemia Low blood glucose, ketosis, twin lamb disease, lambing paralysis, sleeping ewe sickness Treatment Oral glucose Propylene glycol IV glucose Caesarian section Prevention Adequate energy in diet Adequate feeder space Proper body condition Exercise Minimize stress
Milk fever low blood calcium, hypocalcemia, parturient paresis Symptoms [late pregnancy early lactation] Sudden onset Recumbency Neck turned back Muscle weakness Muscle tremors Bloat Coma death Differential diagnosis: pregnancy toxemia
Milk fever low blood calcium, hypocalcemia, parturient paresis Risk factors Fetal demands for calcium Demands for colostrum production. Calcium deficiency Overfeeding calcium Stress, especially nutritional
Milk fever low blood calcium, hypocalcemia, parturient paresis Treatment Oral calcium Calcium borogluconate IV calcium Dextrose Prevention Proper amount of calcium in diet Minimize stress Save alfalfa for lactation.
Vaginal prolapse protrusion of vagina through vulva Usually occurs 1-3 weeks prior to lambing. Often corrects itself after lambing. Causes Increased abdominal pressure Calcium status ???? Short tail docks ??? Internal fat Gravity Genetics Treatment Replace, purse string (suture) Bearing retainer, spoon Prolapse harness Cull
Abortion Termination of pregnancy Stillborns Weak lambs and kids that diet shortly after birth. Failure to expel dead fetuses can result in death to the female. Risk factors Ingestion of bacteria. Spoiled feed. Consumption of contaminated feed contaminated with cat feces. Treatment Antibiotics Isolate affected females Aborting females develop immunity
White muscle disease nutritional muscular dystrophy, stiff lamb disease, muscular hypertrophy Deficiency of selenium and/or vitamin E New born lambs, kids Sudden exercise may trigger condition Symptoms Skeletal – treat with vit E/Se shot Mild stiffness to obvious pain upon walking to inability to stand Stiff gait Hunched-up appearance Cardiac Pneumonia Difficulty breathing Frothy nasal discharge Fever Irregular and elevated heart and respiratory rates.
White muscle disease nutritional muscular dystrophy, stiff lamb disease, muscular hypertrophy Risk factors Selenium deficient soils Poor quality forages Lack of pasture access Low Se feeds Prevention Provide adequate selenium and vitamin E in diet Se/Vit E injections – be careful
Proper nutrition is the key to a successful lambing and kidding season.