Presentation on theme: "This presentation was initially prepared for a Lambing and Kidding School held December 8, 2007 in Westminster, MD."— Presentation transcript:
1This presentation was initially prepared for a Lambing and Kidding School held December 8, in Westminster, MD.
2Feeding the pregnant and lactating female Susan Schoenian Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Cooperative Extension Western Maryland Research & Education Center
3Today’s presentation Nutrients Sources of nutrients Nutrient requirementsPractical feeding recommendations for pregnant and lactating doesNutritional disorders related to lambing and kidding
4Nutrients for sheep and goats EnergyProteinMineralsVitaminsWaterRoughage (fiber)
5Energy Needed in the most amount. Usually the most limiting nutrient. Excess is stored as fat.Expressed as . . .TDN – total digestible nutrients (%)ME – metabolizable energy (mcal)NE for maintenance, growth, lactation, and fiber production (mcal)
7Protein Composed of amino acids. Bypass or escape protein increases protein efficiency.Quantity more important than quality.Usually most expensive ingredient.Excess protein is not stored in the body. It will be used inefficiently as energy.Excess N is an environmental concern.
8Sources of protein Highest Moderate Low Lowest Protein meals (46-52%) Plant - soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut mealFish meal (66%)Urea (NPN) (288%)ModerateAlfalfa and other legume hays (13-21%)LowGrass hay (10-12%)Cereal grains (8-14%)LowestPoor quality hay (<10%)Straw (3-5%)
9Minerals Required in small quantities (grams) Macro – salt, Ca, P, Mg, K, and SMicro (trace) – Se, I, Cu, Fe, Mo, Cr, F, Zn, and MnBalance of minerals is important.Example: Ca:PMany interactions.Example: Cu-Mo-SSources:Hay, pasture, grainMineral mixes, blocks, tubs
10Sources of calcium High Moderate Poor Limestone (38%) Bonemeal (24%) Dicalcium phosphate (25%)ModerateAlfalfa and other legume hays and pasture ( %)Soybean hulls (0.55%)Grass hay and pasture ( %)Protein meals ( %)PoorCereal grains ( %)
11Vitamins Ruminants have a dietary requirement for Vitamin A, D, and E. Vitamin K and B-vitamins are manufactured by the rumen.No dietary requirement for Vitamin C or D.Sources of vitaminsNatural sourcesVitamin packsMineral mixes, blocks, tubs
12More expensive, but convenient and properly balanced. Manufactured feedsBlends of ingredients that are formulated to supply all (complete) or defined portions (supplement) of the requirements of targeted animal).Complete feedsProtein supplements or balancersMineral mixes, blocks, tubsUse properly!More expensive, but convenient and properly balanced.
14Water The most essential nutrient Intake (need) varies by . . . Moisture in feedLactation (2-3 gal) > Gestation > Maintenance (1/2 to 1 gal)Late Gestation > Mid and early gestationTriplets, twins > singleSheep > goatsMilk type sheep and goats > meat typeSummer > winter
15Roughage Should be primary source of feed intake. Maintains healthy rumen function.Less problems when sheep and goats are forage-fed.Minimum amount of roughage is ½ lb. per 100 lbs. of body weight.
16Nutrient requirements depend on … Size (weight)AgeStage and level of productionClimate and environmentBody condition
17Size (weight) Nutrient requirements for different mature size ewes in late gestation, carrying twin lambs.NRC, 1985
18Size (weight) Nutrient requirements for different mature size females in late gestation, carrying twin lambs.NRC, 1985
19Ewe lambs require a more nutrient dense diet. Age Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes (132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate)Ewe lambs require a more nutrient dense diet.NRC, 1985Ewe lambs and doelings also have difficulty competing for feeder space.
20Ewe lambs require a higher percent of protein in their diets. Age Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes (132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate)Ewe lambs require a higher percent of protein in their diets.NRC, 1985Ewe lambs and doelings also have difficulty competing for feeder space.
21Ewe lambs require a higher percent of calcium in their diets. Age Nutrient requirements for ewe lambs and mature ewes (132-lb. ewes, late gestation, 150% lambing rate)Ewe lambs require a higher percent of calcium in their diets.NRC, 1985Ewe lambs and doelings also have difficulty competing for feeder space.
22Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambs.NRC, 1985
23Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambs,NRC, 1985
24Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb Stage of production Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. mature ewe that raises twin lambsNRC, 1985
25Level of Production Nutrient requirements of a 176-lb. lactating ewe. NRC, 2007
26Level of Production Nutrient requirements of 176-lb. lactating ewe. NRC, 2007
27Level of Production Nutrient requirements of 176-lb. lactating ewe. NRC, 2007
28Climate and environment Below critical temperature, livestock must expend energy to keep warm. Wind and humidity, along with low temperatures increase body heat losses and increase energy requirements of livestock.A sheep’s critical temperature depends upon the length of its fleece and its feeding program.50ºF for freshly shorn sheep.28ºF for sheep with 2.5 in. fleece
29Climate and environment Below critical temperature, livestock must expend energy to keep warm. Critical temperature for beef cattle with a winter coat is 32ºF (61ºF if their coat is wet).There is a 1% increase in energy requirements for each 1ºF below the critical temperature.High quality hay is the preferred feed source because more body heat is produced when it is digested (vs. grain).
30Effect of a lower critical temperature on the energy requirements of a goat needing 2.8 lbs. of TDN.
31Exercise/Activity Nutrient requirements increase with exercise and activity. Nutrient requirements can be affected by travel distance and land topography.Exercise may be a function of forage availability.NRC requirements take into account normal exercise of grazing sheep.NRC requirements are for goats reared in confinement.
32Body condition scoring (BCS) A valuable management tool that can be used to evaluate the feeding program and the need for changes.Body condition is a better indicator of condition than weight.The most important times to body condition score are breeding, late gestation, and weaning.Body condition scoring estimates fat and muscle on a scale of 1 to 5. Half scores are commonly used. The cattle system (1-9) can also be used.1 BCS equals 13% of the live weight of a female in moderate condition (3-3.5).Exact score is not important as the relative scores and the differences between scores.
34Life cycle feeding of ewes and does Maintenance (dry period)BreedingEarly pregnancyMid-pregnancyLate pregnancyEarly lactationLate lactationWeaning
35Practical feeding recommendations for pregnant and lactating females Goal: feed proper amount and balance of nutrients.Quantity (lbs) more important that quality (%).Make forage the main part of the diet.
36Practical feeding recommendations for pregnant and lactating females Balance ration (proper way)By hand (math)Simultaneous equations (Algebra)Pearson SquareUse computer programUse spreadsheetWeb-based ration balancingFeed by “rule of thumb”
37Balance a ration Know nutrient requirements of animals (NRC tables) Know nutrient composition of feeds (test feed or use “book” values)Determine how much hay you need to feed to meet the energy requirements.Make sure the animal can consume the amount of hay that you calculate she needs by looking up dry matter intake in NRC table.Calculate how much protein, Ca, and P the hay is providing.Add supplement(s) to hay or pasture ration to provide the protein, Ca, and P that the hay lacks. .
38Start with forage Pasture, weeds, browse, hay, silage Feed supplements to provide nutrients that the forage is lacking.Feed supplement(s) to provide a more nutrient-dense diet.Feed supplement(s) to improve health and performance.Feed supplements to save money.
39Feeding hay Hay varies tremendously in nutritive quality. Have your forage tested to determine its nutritive quality.Round bales are less expensive to purchase, but result in more wastage and nutrient loss.There’s less waste and more flexibility when feeding square bales, but they are more expensive.When hay is offered free choice, livestock often overeat.
40Feeding according to “rules of thumb” ForageFeed 3 to 4 lbs. of grass hay (or pasture) during early and mid gestation.Feed 4 to 5 lbs. of average quality hay (or pasture) during late gestation.During late gestation, you may need to supplement Ca if feeding a grass hay (don’t depend on free choice minerals).Save alfalfa hay for lactation when the female’s nutritional needs are the highest.Feed poor quality hay prior to and after weaning.Bigger amounts for big females and smaller amounts for smaller females.
41Feeding according to “rules of thumb” Concentrate/grainNo grain during early and mid pregnancy.Feed ½ to 1 lb. of grain per day to females during late gestation.Start with a ¼ lb. of grain and gradually increase amount of grain in diet.May need to feed more if you expect a birthing percentage greater than 200%.Grain can substitute for some of the hay in the ration, but be CAREFUL.Bigger amounts for big females and smaller amounts for smaller females.
42Feeding according to “rules of thumb” After parturitionPlenty of water. Warm water in winter.Forage for the first few days.Take about a week to get the ewe/doe on full feed.
43Feeding according to “rules of thumb” LactationFeed 4 to 5 lbs. of your best quality hay + 1 lb. of grain for each offspring the female is nursing.Separate females into production groups: singles, twins, and triplets.If feeding alfalfa hay or another legume, the grain can be whole corn or barley.If feeding grass hay, you will need to supplement protein and calcium in the grain ration.Bigger amounts for big females and smaller amounts for smaller females.
44Additional tips for feeding Weigh feed.Don’t rely on free choice minerals.Include Bovatec®, Rumensin® or Deccox® in ration to prevent coccidiosis. **They are toxic to equines**Feed whole grains.Split feedings if you’re feeding a lot of grain.Separate animals into groups according to their nutritional needs.Feed and manage ewe lambs/doelings separate from mature females.Aim for moderate body condition scores.
45Health risks related to lambing and kidding Influenced by nutrition and feeding:Pregnancy toxemiaMilk feverVaginal prolapseAbortionWhite muscle disease
50Milk fever low blood calcium, hypocalcemia, parturient paresis Risk factorsFetal demands for calciumDemands for colostrum production.Calcium deficiencyOverfeeding calciumStress, especially nutritional
51Milk fever low blood calcium, hypocalcemia, parturient paresis TreatmentOral calcium Calcium borogluconateIV calciumDextrosePreventionProper amount of calcium in dietMinimize stressSave alfalfa for lactation.
52Vaginal prolapse protrusion of vagina through vulva CausesIncreased abdominal pressureCalcium status ????Short tail docks ???Internal fatGravityGeneticsTreatmentReplace, purse string (suture)Bearing retainer, spoonProlapse harnessCullUsually occurs 1-3 weeks prior to lambing.Often corrects itself after lambing.
53Abortion Termination of pregnancy Stillborns Risk factorsIngestion of bacteria.Spoiled feed.Consumption of contaminated feed contaminated with cat feces.TreatmentAntibioticsIsolate affected femalesAborting females develop immunityTermination of pregnancyStillbornsWeak lambs and kids that diet shortly after birth.Failure to expel dead fetuses can result in death to the female.
54White muscle disease nutritional muscular dystrophy, stiff lamb disease, muscular hypertrophy Deficiency of selenium and/or vitamin ENew born lambs, kidsSudden exercise may trigger conditionSymptomsSkeletal – treat with vit E/Se shotMild stiffness to obvious pain upon walking to inability to standStiff gaitHunched-up appearanceCardiacPneumoniaDifficulty breathingFrothy nasal dischargeFeverIrregular and elevated heart and respiratory rates.
55White muscle disease nutritional muscular dystrophy, stiff lamb disease, muscular hypertrophy Risk factorsSelenium deficient soilsPoor quality foragesLack of pasture accessLow Se feedsPreventionProvide adequate selenium and vitamin E in dietSe/Vit E injections – be careful
56Proper nutrition is the key to a successful lambing and kidding season.