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The forces at work are: Electromagnetic: Repulsion of like charges: proton-proton and electron-electron Attraction of unlike charges: proton-electron. Magnetic: Electron spin introduces magnetic forces. Electrons with opposite spins produce opposite magnetic poles. Opposite magnetic poles attract. Opposite spin is required for electrons to occupy the same orbital.

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The Energies involved: Electron (orbital) Potential Energy: 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 1s ENERGY LEVEL

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120 o 109.5 o 90 o 180 o Bond Angles

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PxPx PyPy PzPz PxPx PyPy PzPz

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Methane building blocks

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2s2p x 2p z 2p y 1s sp 3 sp 3 109.5 o Promote Hybridize x z y Methane: Carbon

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CH 2 O 120 o

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2s2p x 2p z 2p y 1s sp 2 sp 2 sp 2 120 o Hybridized Formaldehyde: Carbon Promoted 120 o Trigonal Planar 2s + 2p x + 2p z

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2s2p x 2p z 2p y 1s sp 2 sp 2 sp 2 120 o Hybridized Formaldehyde: Oxygen 120 o Trigonal Planar Lone Pairs 2s + 2p x + 2p z

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Formaldehyde Sigma bond 2 Lone Pairs bond bond

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2s2p x 2p z 2p y 1s sp Promoted Hybridized Hydrogen Cyanide: Carbon 2s + 2p x Linear

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2s2p x 2p z 2p y 1s sp Hybridized Hydrogen Cyanide: Nitrogen 2s + 2p x Linear

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bond bond

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PCl 5

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3s3p x 3p z 3p y 2 Neon 120 o Hybridized Phosphorus Pentachloride: Phosphorus Trigonal Bipyrimidal sp 3 d sp 3 d sp 3 d sp 3 d sp 3 d d xz d yz d xy d x 2 -y 2 d z 2 120 o 90 o Promoted

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