Presentation on theme: "This presentation was originally given on December 6, 2008, at a Lambing and Kidding School at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES)."— Presentation transcript:
This presentation was originally given on December 6, 2008, at a Lambing and Kidding School at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES).
Problems encountered and how to address them Susan Schoenian Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Cooperative Extension –
Lambing and kidding Most ewes and does will lamb and kid on their own and take care of their offspring. It is best to leave them alone. Dont make things more complicated than they need to be. Cull ewes and does with problems. Do not keep offspring from females that have problems.
Problems encountered before lambing and kidding Pregnancy toxemia Milk fever Vaginal prolapse Abortion storm
Pregnancy toxemia also called ketosis, twin lamb disease, and lambing paralysis Low blood glucose caused by inadequate intake of energy intake during last month of pregnancy. Breakdown of fat produces toxic ketone bodies.
Pregnancy toxemia What are the symptoms? Lag behind flock Droopy Lack of appetite Lethargy Recumbency Death
Pregnancy toxemia Early intervention is necessary. Treatment is to administer glucose to affected females. Orally Under the skin (Sub-Q) Intravenous (IV) In advanced cases, a caesarian section may be necessary.
Milk fever hypocalcemia Low blood calcium Caused by intake of too little or too much calcium (failure to mobilize calcium).
Milk fever What are the symptoms? Lack behind flock Lack of appetite Lethargy Unsteadiness Recumbency Similar to pregnancy toxemia
Milk fever Early recognition is necessary, Treatment is calcium therapy. Oral Under skin (sub-Q) Intravenous (IV)
Vaginal prolapse Protrusion of vagina Causes.... ? Genetic predisposition Lack of exercise Obesity Hormonal imbalances
Vaginal prolapse Need to clean and put back in. Can keep in with a bearing retainer (spoon), prolapse harness, or bailing twine. A stitch will also keep prolapse in. A ewe can lamb through the spoon and harness, but the stitch must be removed. Usually cures itself after lambing. Spoon/bearing retainerharness
Vaginal prolapse Ewes that prolapse are likely to prolapse again. There is a genetic component, so you should not keep or sell (for breeding) lambs born to these ewes. Rectal prolapse
During an abortion storm Isolation and sanitation. Do not feed on ground. Destroy infected placenta and fetuses. Submit samples to diagnostic lab. Immediate vaccination. Feed oxytetracycline or tetracycline. Give remaining females antibiotic injections.
During lambing and kidding Dystocia Ringwomb Malpresentations Oversized fetus Aborted fetus(es)
Ringwomb Failure of the cervix to dilate. Affects females of any age or breed, especially those bearing multiple offspring. Inadequate hormone preparation. Study showed ringworm was result of autosomal recessive trait. https://eidr.wvu.edu/files/964/Kerr_N_ETD.pdf
Ringwomb Administration of calcium and/or estrogen. Manipulate the cervix to open it up. A caesarian section is often the only way to save the female and offspring. Does not occur in successive seasons. https://eidr.wvu.edu/files/964/Kerr_N_ETD.pdf
Assisting with difficult births Normal presentation 2 front legs and nose Backwards presentation It is best to leave the ewe or doe alone. Check female if she has not made progress after ~ 1 hour of hard labor (after water bag has broke). Use plenty of lubricant. Elevate hindquarters or have ewe or doe stand. Seek assistance after 30 minutes of work with no progress.
Malpresentations Elbow lock One or more legs back Head back Breech Upside down Multiple fetuses trying to be born at the same time. Swollen head. Disproportionate size. Dead or deformed fetuses.
Problems encountered after lambing and kidding Uterine prolapse No milk Inadequate milk Retained placenta Uterine infection Lack of appetite
Uterine prolapse Occurs sporadically Protrusion of the uterus Is a life-threatening condition. Cause.... ? Obesity Genetic predisposition Low calcium Exposure to estrogens Excessive traction Retained fetal membranes Lack of exercise
Uterine prolapse Prompt and correct replacement of uterus Thorough cleaning. Elevate hindquarters. Sugar can reduce swelling of uterus. Antibiotics + oxytocin Usually requires veterinary assistance. Does not occur in subsequent parturitions.
No milk Some females do not let them milk down immediately. Some females never let their milk down. An injection of oxytocin may help. Sometimes, it takes a few days for yearlings to come into sufficient milk. Will need to feed colostrum to lambs/kids.
Inadequate milk Caused by... Inadequate nutrition during late gestation. Excess fat in the udder caused by overfeeding prepubertal ewe lambs and doelings. Udder disease. Genetic predisposition. Will need to supplement, graft, or artificially rear lambs or kids.
Disowning offspring Why? Most common in first-time mothers. Offspring are delivered in different places One offspring wonders away Offspring have sharp teeth. Sore udder or teats Long labor Sickness Fear Use a head stanchion to allow lambs/kids to nurse or graft, or artificially rear disowned babies. Get rid of females that disown offspring twice.
Colostrum substitutes CAE and OPP are transmitted via virus-contaminated colostrum and milk. Colostrum from another female in the flock. Colostrum from another sheep or goat farm. Cow colostrum Colostrum substitutes Colostrum supplements Homemade colostrum Milk replacer
Feeding colostrum Tube feeding is better than bottle feeding. Feed colostrum at body temperature. Thaw frozen colostrum slowly. Feed 2-4 ounces at 3 to 4 hour intervals. Newborn should consume 10% of its body weight in colostrum.
Raising orphan lambs/kids Bottle with nipples for small number of lambs or kids. Milk bar for larger number of lambs or kids. Lamb milk replacer for lambs Kid milk replacer for kids. Follow directions on bag. Wean abruptly at approximately six weeks of age, so long as babies are drinking water and eating dry food.
Retained placenta Usually passed 30 to 60 minutes after delivery of last offspring. If not... Monitor closely. Slight tug of placenta – do not pull hard. Administer antibiotics 2x day, Administer oxytocin or prostaglandins. [veterinary involvement]