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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry. 2 What is Chemistry? The study of the matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. The study.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry. 2 What is Chemistry? The study of the matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. The study."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry

2 2 What is Chemistry? The study of the matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. The study of the matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Applied chemistry is the using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing Applied chemistry is the using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing Pure chemistry gathers knowledge for knowledges sake Pure chemistry gathers knowledge for knowledges sake

3 3 Which Comes First? Pure Chemistry Pure Chemistry Usually comes first, applied later Called technology Or engineering Pure chemistry can explain behavior that has been used without knowing why Steel swords Applied Chemistry Applied Chemistry Cant be good or bad Can be good or bad depending on use

4 4 Branches of Chemistry Analytical Chemistry -studies composition of substances. Analytical Chemistry -studies composition of substances. Organic Chemistry -compounds containing carbon Organic Chemistry -compounds containing carbon Inorganic Chemistry -substances without carbon Inorganic Chemistry -substances without carbon Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Physical Chemistry studies behavior of substances Physical Chemistry studies behavior of substances –rates and mechanisms of reactions –energy transfers

5 5 Why study Chemistry Explain the natural world Explain the natural world –Why? Prepare for a career Prepare for a career –Directly- in a lab –Indirectly- problem solving and thinking skills Be an informed citizen Be an informed citizen –Vote –Dont get scammed

6 6 Applied Chemistry Material Design Material Design –Plastics –Paints –Nanotechnology Scale Scale –Macroscopic- Big enough to see –Microscopic- Too small to see unaided –Nanotechnology- manipulating individual atoms and molecules

7 7 Applied Chemistry Energy Energy –Ability to do work Different types can be converted to each other Different types can be converted to each other Conservation Conservation –More efficient conversion –Insulation Production –new sources Production –new sources Storage- batteries, fuel cells Storage- batteries, fuel cells

8 8 Applied Chemistry Agriculture Agriculture –Production- fertilizers, soil tests –Protection – pesticide, herbicide Medicine Medicine –Drugs –Materials- hips, artificial skin –Biotechnology- using organisms as a means of production

9 9 Applied Chemistry Environment- Pollution Environment- Pollution –Eliminate sources –Treatment once polluted Astronomy Astronomy –Remote analysis of stars from their light –Analysis of extraterrestrial samples

10 10 Alchemy Forerunner of chemistry Forerunner of chemistry Mystical- search for perfection Mystical- search for perfection Practical- developed glassware and techniques used today Practical- developed glassware and techniques used today Tried to change elements Tried to change elements Faulty assumptions and lack of logic led them astray Faulty assumptions and lack of logic led them astray

11 11 Scientific Method A way of solving problems or answering questions. A way of solving problems or answering questions. Starts with observation- noting an recording facts Starts with observation- noting an recording facts Hypothesis- a possible explanation as to the cause of the observation, based on research and previous knowledge Hypothesis- a possible explanation as to the cause of the observation, based on research and previous knowledge

12 12 Scientific Method Experiment- Experiment- designed to test the hypothesis only only two possible answers –hypothesis –hypothesis is right is wrong Generates Generates data data -observations from experiments. Modify Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle

13 13 Variables Controlled experiment- Only want one thing to change at a time in a laboratory. Controlled experiment- Only want one thing to change at a time in a laboratory. Manipulated variable- What you change or control directly Manipulated variable- What you change or control directly Also called independent variable Also called independent variable Responding variable – What changes as a result. No direct control Responding variable – What changes as a result. No direct control Also called dependent variable Also called dependent variable

14 14 Observations Hypothesis Experiment Cycle repeats many times. Cycle repeats many times. By you and by others By you and by others The hypothesis gets more and more certain. The hypothesis gets more and more certain. Becomes a theory Becomes a theory A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way. A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way.

15 15 Theory can never be proven. Theory can never be proven. It is the best explanation It is the best explanation Useful because they predict behavior Useful because they predict behavior Help us form mental pictures of processes (models) Help us form mental pictures of processes (models) Observations Hypothesis Experiment

16 16 Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times Scientific Law is developed Scientific Law is developed Description of how things behave Description of how things behave Usually an equation Usually an equation Law - how Law - how Theory- why Theory- why Observations Hypothesis Experiment

17 17 Prediction Experiment Modify Observations Hypothesis Experiment Law Theory (Model)

18 18 Communication Use Journals Use Journals –Do research –Write article »Describe procedures, methods, and findings –Submit for peer review »Sent back for editing –Publish »Letters to editor respond.

19 19 Collaboration Working together Working together Teams Teams –Different skills –Different specialties Internet and Internet and Conferences Conferences

20 20 Problem Solving Only way to get good is to practice Only way to get good is to practice Two parts Two parts –Developing Plan- »Hard part »Higher level thinking –Implementing Plan- »Not so hard »Application level

21 21 Solving Numeric Problems Three steps- Three steps- 1.Analyze »Known n Numbers n Measurements n Equations »Unknown n What are you looking for? n What units?

22 22 Solving Numeric Problems Three steps- Three steps- 1.Analyze »Plan n The heart of problem solving n Diagram n Look info –Table –Graph –Equation

23 23 Solving Numeric Problems Three steps- Three steps- 1.Analyze 2.Calculate »Easiest part »Convert measurements »Rearrange »Appendix C

24 24 Solving Numeric Problems Three steps- Three steps- 1.Analyze 2.Calculate 3.Evaluate »Reasonable? »Read the question, did you answer it? »Check your work »Estimate

25 25 Practice What is the length, in centimeters, of a 10.0-inch ruler, given that there are 2.54 centimeters per inch? What is the length, in centimeters, of a 10.0-inch ruler, given that there are 2.54 centimeters per inch?

26 26 Practice A certain ball when dropped from any height, bounces one-half the original height. If the ball was dropped from a height of 60 in. and allowed to bounce freely, what is the total distance the ball has traveled when it hits the ground for the third time? Assume the ball bounces straight up and down. A certain ball when dropped from any height, bounces one-half the original height. If the ball was dropped from a height of 60 in. and allowed to bounce freely, what is the total distance the ball has traveled when it hits the ground for the third time? Assume the ball bounces straight up and down.

27 27 Conceptual Problems Without numbers or math Without numbers or math Two steps Two steps 1.Analyze »Identify known and unknown »Plan 2.Solve

28 28 Practice You find a sealed box with strings protruding from three holes, as shown in the diagram. When you tug string A, it becomes longer and string C becomes shorter. When you tug string B, it becomes longer, but strings A and C are not affected. Make a diagram showing the arrangement of the strings inside the box. You find a sealed box with strings protruding from three holes, as shown in the diagram. When you tug string A, it becomes longer and string C becomes shorter. When you tug string B, it becomes longer, but strings A and C are not affected. Make a diagram showing the arrangement of the strings inside the box.


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