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Chapter 3 The Solar System.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 The Solar System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 The Solar System

2 How was it formed The Nebular Theory
Started as nebula about 5 billion years ago Composed of hydrogen and helium Nearby supernova sent shock waves through galaxy caused gases to be pulled inward supplied new elements Shrank to a spinning disk –10 billion kilometers across Gravity heated center to protostar - the sun

3 How was it formed Other matter spun around the new sun
gathered into clumps- protoplanets Near the sun the light weight gases boiled away Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars In those far away the gases did not boil away Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune the gas giants

4 How was it formed Around the protoplanets smaller clumps formed moons or satellites. Pluto is thought to be a moon of Neptune that broke away. Asteroid belt- clumps of rocks between Mars and Jupiter Jupiter’s gravity stopped a planet from forming Oort Cloud- Near the edge clumps of matter- home of comets.

5 History People have used the stars for ages.
Used constellations to set planting times Used constellations to guide travels Some lights in the sky wandered through the constellations Called them “planets” which is Greek for wanderers

6 Ptolemy Greek scientist Placed earth at center of universe
Other objects moved in orbits around the earth Because circle was considered a perfect shape, thought they moved in circular paths

7 Copernicus Polish astronomer
Found Earth and planets revolved around sun In the same direction At different speeds Thought the orbits were circular

8 Kepler German mathematician and astronomer
Used others observations (Tycho Brahe) Calculated the orbits of planets were ovals or ellipses Closer to the sun - shortest time of orbit Farther from the sun - greater time

9 Planets Move in an elliptical orbit

10 Planets Period of revolution
the time it takes to go once around the sun one year Mercury 88 days, Pluto 248 years

11 What keeps them there? Law of inertia - objects motion won’t change unless acted upon by an outside force. Won’t change speed or direction Why do they curve? Gravity pulls them toward the sun

12 What keeps them there? Inertia Gravity

13 Rotation Planets spin on their axes One rotation is a day
Mercury 58 days, Jupiter 10 hours

14 Special Features of the Planets
Mercury Many Craters no atmosphere no erosion Slow rotation makes it hot and cold

15 Venus Thick atmosphere of carbon dioxide Sulfuric acid clouds
Greenhouse effect carbon dioxide traps heat. Makes Venus hotter than Mercury Retrograde rotation - rotates backward

16 Mars Red planet- covered by iron oxide (rust) Mons Olympus -
Largest volcano in the solar system Two ice caps north - water -never melts south -carbon dioxide melts in summer


18 Two moons of Mars Phobos Deimos



21 Jupiter

22 Jupiter Largest of the gas giants Huge storms - red spot
Small solid core Liquid metal layer makes a huge magnetic field Magnetosphere Gives off more heat than it receives from the sun Thin ring

23 Jupiter Gives off more heat than it receives from the sun.
By far the largest planet.

24 16 moons 4 seen by Galileo helped change science

25 Saturn Similar to Jupiter Clouds, magnetosphere, gives off heat
Rotates in 10 hours - makes it bulge in the middle and flat at the poles Low density- would float in water

26 Saturn Many rings complex system made of water weave in and out

27 Saturn Many moons - Titan- the largest is like the early Earth.

28 Uranus Twice as far from the sun as Saturn.
Covered with ocean of superheated water Tilted on axis Rings of methane ice Many moons

29 Neptune Like Uranus Hydrogen and helium atmosphere
Surface of water and methane Rings made of dust Eight moons

30 Triton Large moon Thought to be captured Retrograde revolution
out of plane of Neptune’s rotation

31 Pluto Moon sized Made of methane Pink atmosphere on the sunny side
Moon Charon 1/2 the size of Pluto Scientists think it is a moon broken away from Neptune Orbit crosses Neptune Orbit not in plane with other planets

32 Other Stuff Meteor- the shooting star -the light you see the sky
Meteoroid- solid rocky objects circling the sun Meteorite- When a meteor hits the ground Most don’t because they burn up in the atmosphere Some meteoroids are iron and nickel Some are stony Others are combinations

33 Meteorites Leave a crater where they hit the ground
Meteorite Crater in Arizona Evidence of meteorites from the moon and from Mars

34 Comets Chunks of dust and gas from the Oort Cloud that orbit the sun
When it gets close to the sun it gets hotter Some of the gas and dust form a cloud around the head called the coma Solar wind pushes the gases away from the sun and make the tail Tail is pushed by the solar wind Tail always points way from the sun

35 Solar wind Coma Tail Nucleus


37 Comets Comets orbit the sun
Long period comets take a long time to go around Thousands of years Short period comets return every few years Halley’s every 75 to 79 years Last time in 1986 Suspect a nearby star disrupts the Oort cloud to send more comets toward sun.

38 Asteroids Chunks of planetlike material floating in space
Most between Mars and Jupiter Most 1km in diameter Ceres- 1000km in diameter Some pass near Earth Caused craters on moon, and inner planets

39 Looking for life On other planets
Need liquid water and moderate temperatures. Earth is just the right distance to have the right temperatures Looking for evidence of former life on Mars- used to have water. On Titan atmosphere like early earth.

40 Rockets Rely on Netwon’s Third law of Motion
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Reward blast of hot gases causes rocket to shoot forward. First developed by Chinese in 1000 Tube full of gunpowder with cap on one end.

41 Escape Velocity The minimum speed needed to leave the gravitational pull. Depends on mass of planet and distance from the center of planet. Earth 11.2 km/sec Moon 2.3 km/sec Jupiter 63.4 km/sec Pluto 0.3 km/sec Sun 616 km/sec

42 Rockets and Escape Velocity
Solid rockets burn up fuel quickly Large thrust early Gravity eventually slows them down. Liquid fuels provide continuous thrust. Goddard- gasoline and liquid oxygen Space shuttle liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen Multiple stages to reduce weight.

43 Spacecraft Probes have gone past all the planets except Pluto
Have sampled comets tails Have taken pictures of planets and moons.

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