8 Metalloids or Semimetals Properties of bothSemiconductors
9 Atoms and ions Atoms are electrically neutral. Same number of protons and electrons.Ions are atoms, or groups of atoms, with a charge.Different numbers of protons and electrons.Only electrons can move.Gain or lose electrons.
10 F1- O2- Anion A negative ion. Has gained electrons. Non metals can gain electrons.Charge is written as a superscript on the right.F1-Has gained one electronO2-Has gained two electrons
11 K1+ Ca2+ Cations Positive ions. Formed by losing electrons. More protons than electrons.Metals form cations.K1+Has lost one electronCa2+Has lost two electrons
12 Two Types of Compounds Molecular compounds Made of molecules. Made by joining nonmetal atoms together into molecules.
13 Two Types of Compounds Ionic Compounds Made of cations and anions. Metals and nonmetals.The electrons lost by the cation are gained by the anion.The cation and anions surround each other.Smallest piece is a FORMULA UNIT.
14 Two Types of Compounds Ionic Molecular Smallest piece Formula Unit MoleculeTypes of elementsMetal and NonmetalNonmetalsSolid, liquid or gasStatesolidMelting PointHigh >300ºCLow <300ºC
15 Chemical FormulasShows the kind and number of atoms in the smallest piece of a substance.Molecular formula- number and kinds of atoms in a molecule.CO2C6H12O6
16 Formula UnitThe smallest whole number ratio of atoms in an ionic compound.Ions surround each other so you can’t say which is hooked to which.
17 Charges on ionsFor most of Group A elements, location on the Periodic Table can tell what kind of ion they formElements in the same group have similar properties.Including the charge when they are ions.
18 Charge in groups 1A, 2A and 3A is the group number 1+in 5A, 6A and 7A is the group number - 82+3+3-2-1-
19 Can also use electron dots If it has a few it loses themIf it has many, it gains enough for octetAlK3++3--FN
20 What about the others? We have to figure those out some other way. More on this later.
21 Naming ionsCation- if the charge is always the same (Group A) just write the name of the metal.Most transition metals can have more than one type of charge.Indicate the charge with Roman numerals in parenthesis.Co2+ Cobalt(II) ion
22 Naming ionsA few, like silver, zinc and cadmium only form one kind of ionDon’t get roman numeralsAg+ silver ionZn2+ zinc ionCd2+ cadmium ion
23 Name these Na1+ Sodium ion Ca2+ Calcium ion Al3+ Aluminum ion Fe3+ Iron(III) ionFe2+Iron(II) ionPb2+Lead(II) ionLi1+Lithium ion
24 Write Formulas for these K1+Potassium ionMg2+Magnesium ionCu2+Copper(II) ionCr6+Chromium(VI) ionBa2+Barium ionHg2+Mercury(II) ion
25 Naming Anions Anions are always the same. Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluorine
26 Naming Anions Anions are always the same. Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluorin
27 Naming Anions Anions are always the same Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluori
28 Naming Anions Anions are always the same Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluor
29 Naming Anions Anions are always the same Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluori
30 Naming Anions Anions are always the same Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluorid
31 Naming Anions Anions are always the same Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluoride
32 Naming Anions Anions are always the same Change the element ending to – ideF1- Fluoride ion
33 Name these Cl1- Chloride ion N3- Nitride ion Br1- Bromide ion O2- Oxide ionGa3+Gallium ion
34 Write these Sulfide ion S2- Iodide ion I1- Phosphide ion P3- Strontium ionSr2+
35 Polyatomic ions Groups of atoms that stay together and have a charge. Covalently bondedYou must memorize these. (pg 257)
40 Adding Hydrogen to Polyatomics Hydrogen ions are 1+Attach to other polyatomic ions- changes charge by oneSulfate SO42-Hydrogen sulfate HSO41-Phosphate PO43-Hydrogen phosphate HPO42-Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO41-
42 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Binary Compounds - 2 elements.Ionic - a cation and an anion.The name is just the names of the ions.Cation first anion secondEasy with Group A elements.NaCl = Na+ Cl- = sodium chlorideMgBr2 = Mg2+ Br- = magnesium bromideNa2S
43 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds The problem comes with the transition metals.Cation name includes the charge.The compound must be neutral.same number of + and – charges.Use the negative charge to find the charge on the positive ion.
44 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of CuONeed the charge of CuO is 2-copper must be 2+Copper(II) oxideName CoCl3Cl is 1- and there are three of them = 3-Co must be 3+Cobalt(III) chloride
45 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name of Cu2S.Since S is 2-, the Cu2 must be 2+, so each one is 1+.copper(I) sulfideFe2O3Each O is x 2- = 6-2 Fe must = 6+, so each is 3+.iron(III) oxide
46 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Write the names of the followingKClNa3NCrNSc3P2PbOPbO2Na2Se
47 Ternary Ionic Compounds Will have polyatomic ionsAt least three elements (3 capital letters)Still just name the ionsNaNO3CaSO4CuSO3
49 Writing Formulas The charges have to add up to zero. Get charges on pieces.Cations from name or periodic table.Anions from periodic table or polyatomic.Balance the charges by adding subscripts.Put polyatomics in parenthesis if there is more than one of them
50 Writing Formulas Write the formula for calcium chloride. Calcium is Ca2+Chloride is Cl1-Ca2+ Cl1- would have a 1+ charge.Need another Cl1-Ca2+ Cl21-
51 CrisscrossSwitch the numerical value of the chargesBa2+N3-23Ba3N2Reduce ratio if possible
52 Write the formulas for these Lithium sulfidetin (II) oxidetin (IV) oxideCopper (II) sulfateIron (III) phosphidegallium nitrateIron (III) sulfideammonium sulfide
53 Write the formulas for these Ammonium chloridebarium nitrate
54 Formula and charge from memory YesCharge from nameCharge from tableNoFormula and charge from memoryM+XNm-YMYNmXIonicRoman Numeral?Polyatomic?
55 Yes Metal Metal (charge) Name Name +ide Ionic No Group 1A, 2A or 3A? Poly atomic?
56 Things to look forIf cations have (), the number is their charge. Not how many.If anions end in -ide they are probably off the periodic table (Monoatomic)If anion ends in -ate or -ite it is polyatomicThe positive piece always gets written firstHydrogen- it depends on where it’s atIf it is second, it’s a nonmetal -hydride
57 Writing names and Formulas Molecular CompoundsWriting names and Formulas
58 Molecular compounds made of just nonmetals smallest piece is a moleculecan’t be held together because of opposite charges.can’t use charges to figure out how many of each atom
59 Easier Ionic compounds use charges to determine how many of each. Have to figure out charges.Have to figure out numbers.Molecular compounds name tells you the number of atoms.Uses prefixes to tell you the number
61 Naming Prefix name Prefix name -ide To write the name write two words Exception - we don’t write mono- if there is only one of the first element.No ao oo double vowels when writing name, io, oi, and ai are okay.
68 Writing names and Formulas AcidsWriting names and Formulas
69 Acids Compounds that give off hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Must have H in them.will always be some H next to an anion.The anion determines the name.
70 Naming acidsIf the anion attached to hydrogen is ends in -ide, put the prefix hydro- and change -ide to -ic acidHCl - hydrogen ion and chloride ionhydrochloric acidH2S hydrogen ion and sulfide ionhydrosulfuric acid
71 Naming Acids If the anion has oxygen in it it ends in -ate or -ite change the suffix -ate to -ic acidHNO3 Hydrogen and nitrate ionsNitric acidchange the suffix -ite to -ous acidHNO2 Hydrogen and nitrite ionsNitrous acid
78 Hydro____ icacid____ ic acid____ ous acidAcidYesNoOxygen?-ate?
79 Name these acids a) H2C2O4 b) HF c) HClO2 d) H2CO3 Write formulas for these compounds a) nitrous acid b) hydroselenic acid c) phosphoric acid d) acetic acid43. Name these compounds a) AlF3 b) SnO2 c) Fe(C2H3O2)3 d) KHSO4 e) CaH2 f) HClO3 g) Hg2Br2 h) H2CrO444. Write formulas for these a) Phosphorus pentabromide b) Carbon chloride c) potassium permanganate
80 43. Name these compounds a) AlF3. b) SnO2. c) Fe(C2H3O2)3 d) KHSO4 43. Name these compounds a) AlF3 b) SnO2 c) Fe(C2H3O2)3 d) KHSO4 e) CaH2 f) HClO3 g) Hg2Br2 h) H2CrO444. Write formulas for these a) Phosphorus pentabromide b) Carbon chloride c) potassium permanganate d) Calcium hydrogen carbonate e) dichlorine heptoxide f) trisilicon tetrahydride g) sodium dihydrogen phosphate
81 Summary Periodic table Grouped by properties Metals- make cations 2 types those with () and those withoutNonmetals make anionsThree typesWithout O -ideWith O -ite and -ateOnly electrons can move to make ions
82 Summary Make all the decisions. First determine type of compound Then figure out name or formulaAcid = H to startMetal = IonicNo H, No metal = molecularOnly molecular get prefixesRoman numeral is NOT how manyHydro means no O