Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Water. Water Molecules l O is more electronegative than H l Gives O a partial negative charge l Bent shape makes molecule polar l Strong hydrogen."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15 Water
Water Molecules l O is more electronegative than H l Gives O a partial negative charge l Bent shape makes molecule polar l Strong hydrogen bonds l Water molecules are attracted to one another better than other molecules its size
Surface Tension l liquid water acts like it has a skin. l Water forms round drops. l All because water hydrogen bonds.
Surface Tension l One water molecule H-bonds to another. l Can H bond to molecules all around. H H O H H O + -
Surface Tension l A water molecule in the middle of solution is pulled in all directions.
Surface Tension l Not at the surface. l Only pulled into water and close together l Holds the molecules together. l Causes surface tension.
Surface Tension l Water drops are round because all the molecules on the edge are pulled to the middle. l Gravity can flatten them out on a surface
Adhesive Force l Glass has polar molecules. l Attracts the water molecules. l Some of the pull is up.
Meniscus l Water curves up along the side. l This makes the meniscus.
Meniscus In glass In nonpolar Plastic
Heat Capacity l Water has a high heat capacity l It takes more energy to get its molecules moving faster l Water 4.18 J/gºC - Iron only cal/gºC. Q = Mass x T x C l Calculate the heat need to raise the temperature of 25g of iron and water by 75ºC
Vapor Pressure l The pressure caused by the vapor above a liquid at equilibrium l Caused by molecules that escape l Water has a low vapor pressure for a small molecule l Hydrogen bonding keeps molecules from escaping.
What happens to the vapor pressure of water as the temperature increase. A.It increase because more molecules have the energy to escape B.It decreases because the hydrogen bonds get stronger C.It increase because the hydrogen bond gets weaker D.It does not change because the strength of the hydrogen bond doesnt change.
Boiling point l When vapor pressure equals external pressure. l Strong hydrogen bonds make it hard for water to become a gas. l High boiling point 100 ºC
CH 4 SiH 4 GeH 4 SnH 4 PH 3 NH 3 SbH 3 AsH 3 H2OH2O H2SH2S H 2 Se H 2 Te HF HI HBr HCl Boiling Points 0ºC
Heat of vaporization l Because of the strong hydrogen bonds it takes a large amount of energy to change water from a liquid to a gas. l 2260 J/g is the heat of vaporization. l It takes this much energy to boil water. l You get this much energy back when it condenses. l Steam burns, but heats things well.
Ice l Most liquids contract (get smaller) as they are cooled. l They get more dense. l When they change to solid they are more dense than the liquid. l Solid metals sink in liquid metal. l Ice floats in water. l Why?
Ice l Water becomes more dense as it cools until it reaches 4ºC. l Then it becomes less dense. l As the molecules slow down they arrange themselves into honeycomb shaped crystals. l These are held together by H-bonds. l Freezes at 0ºC, which is high for a small molecule
H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O Liquid Solid
Ice l 10% less dense than water. l Water freezes from the top down. l It takes a great deal of energy to turn solid water to liquid water. l Heat of fusion is 334 J/g.
What is most responsible for waters special properties? A.The two hydrogen atoms, because they are small B.The oxygen atom because it is electronegative C.Hydrogen has a partially positive charge D.The attraction of one water molecule for another
Which of the following is NOT high for water A.Melting point B.Boiling point C.Vapor Pressure D.Heat capacity E.Heat of Fusion
Aqueous Solutions l Solution - a homogenous mixture mixed molecule by molecule. l Solvent - the stuff that does the dissolving. l Solute -the stuff that is dissolved. l Exist in all phases, solvent, solute and solutions l Aqueous solution- a solution with water as the solvent.
Aqueous Solutions l Water dissolves ionic solids and polar covalent solids best. l The rule is like dissolves like l Polar dissolves polar. l Nonpolar dissolves nonpolar. l Oil is non polar. l Oil and water dont mix. l Salt is ionic- salt water.
How Ionic solids dissolve l Called solvation. l Water breaks the + and - charged pieces apart and surround them.
How Ionic solids dissolve H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O Animation
l Solids will dissolve if the attractive force of the water molecules is stronger than the attractive force of the crystal. l If not the solids are insoluble. l Water can do the same things to polar molecules. l Other polar molecules can do the same thing l Molecules that can hydrogen bond are very soluble in water.
l Water doesnt dissolve nonpolar molecules because they have no charges to attract water molecules. l The water molecules attract each other and separate from the nonpolar molecules. l Nonpolar molecules are held together by dispersion forces l Nonpolar dissolves nonpolar because they attract each other the same amount as they attract themselves
Water or Oil? l CaCl 2 l CH 4 l NH 3 l K 2 SO 4 lH2SlH2S l Cl 2 l CH 3 OH
Electrolytes l Substances that conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water. l Conducting is charged pieces moving l Ionic compounds are electrolytes –Fall apart into ions When dissolved When melted
Nonelectrolytes l Substances that dont conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water. l Most molecular compounds. l Dissolve because they are polar l Dont have to ionize to dissolve l Dont make charges
Weak electrolytes l Substances that conduct electricity slightly when dissolved in water. l Some molecular compounds. l When dissolve they partially fall apart l Make a few ions l Dont make ions when melted Animation
Hydrates l Ionic compounds that trap water in their crystal structure l Always the same number of water molecules l Number of molecules written after a dot in the formula CoCl 2 6H 2 O In the name use prefix for number of water molecules Cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate
Hydrates l Heating will force water to leave l l When water returns heat released l Efflorescent hydrates will lose moisture to the air l if their vapor pressure is more than pressure of water in the air
Hydrates l Hygroscopic hydrates pull moisture from the air l Used to remove moisture from packages l Called a dessicant l Deliquescent Hydrates remove so much moisture that they get wet l Form aqueous solutions from water in the air
Soap PO-O- CH 3 CH 2 O-O- O-O-
Soap l Hydrophobic non- polar end PO-O- CH 3 CH 2 O-O- O-O-
Soap l Hydrophilic polar end PO-O- CH 3 CH 2 O-O- O-O-
PO-O- CH 3 CH 2 O-O- O-O- _
l A drop of grease in water l Grease is non-polar l Water is polar l Soap lets you dissolve the non-polar in the polar.
Hydrophobic ends dissolve in grease
Hydrophilic ends dissolve in water
l Water molecules can surround and dissolve grease.
Mixtures that are NOT Solutions l Suspensions are mixtures that slowly settle upon standing. l Particles of a suspension are more than 100 times bigger than that of a solution. l Can be separated by filtering. l Colloids particles are between the size of a suspension and that of a liquid. l Dont settle or filter l Emulsions are colloids of liquids in liquids.
Tyndall Effect l Put a beam of light through a mixture l Reflection of light off undissolved particles l Solution- no Tyndall effect- cant see the beam l Suspensions- sparkle off big particles l Colloids- continuous beam
Math in chapter 15 l Q = m T C l Q is heat l m is mass l T is change in temperature l C is heat capacity- –for water 4.18 J/g C l Use when the temperature changes l 0 C C
Math Practice l How much heat will it take to heat 23 g of water from 23º to 79ºC?
Math in chapter 15 l Q = H fus m l H fus is heat of fusion – energy to melt –For water 334 J/g –Use at 0 C –No temperature change
Math Practice l How much heat does it take to melt 23 g of ice at 0ºC?
Math in chapter 15 l Q = H vap m l H vap is heat of vaporization – energy to turn liquid to gas l For water 2260 J/g –Use at 100 C –No temperature change
Math Practice l How much heat does it take to boil 23 g of water at 100ºC?
Please make your selection Which takes the most energy? A.Melting 10 g of ice. B.Heating 10 g of water from 0ºC to 100ºC C.Boiling 10 g of water at 100ºC