6Overview of Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by:QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demandsQuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexityReader and TaskReader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assignedBest measured by an attentive readerAbility to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a textKnowledge of four factors in developing effective tools:Levels of Meaning or PurposeReader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student:Cognitive abilitiesMotivationTopic knowledgeLinguistic and discourse knowledgeComprehension strategiesExperiences“Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group”Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile)Sentence lengthText cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix)Measurement tools ( Lexile exampleStructureLanguage Conventionality & ClarityKnowledge DemandsThe Standards include exemplar texts that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade.Appendix A
11Holes by Louis Sachar Quantitative: 660 Lexile (2-3) Qualitative: Multiple Levels of Meaning (literal and symbolic)Unconventional order (back and forth from past to present)Clear languageMultiple themes, but relatable characters
13Holes by Louis Sachar Reader: 2. Task: High motivation for upper grade readers because of relatable charactersRelevant themes2. Task:Write an essay explaining how the story would be different if Trout hadn’t burned down the school or killed Sam. Include at least five examples from the text.
14Scaffolding Text to Increase Independence and Enhance Understanding Chunking TextReread with Guidance
15Write-Pair-Share Jot down a text that you use in your classroom. What makes it complex (qualitative, quantitative, reader/task)What strategies do you use to scaffold the text?
17What are Text-Based Questions? Questions that are text dependent can only be answered by a close reading of the text.The evidence in the response comes directly from the text and does not depend on information from outside sources.Text dependent questions are largely interpretive questions and require an understanding that extends beyond recalling basic facts.
18Uncle Joe drove Caleb to the football game and dropped him off Uncle Joe drove Caleb to the football game and dropped him off. “I will be back to pick you up when the game is over,” said Uncle Joe. A few hours later, Uncle Joe pulled into the parking lot and watched the students streaming out of the stadium cheering and high-fiving each other. As Caleb climbed into the car, Uncle Joe remarked, “Well, it looks like your team won the game!”How did Uncle Joe know that Caleb’s team won the game?
23Deepening Text Analysis Through Text-Based Performance Tasks What is a Performance Task?Tasks that are authentic and meaningful ask students to synthesize knowledge and skills learned and apply them to construct a response, create a product and/or performance that demonstrates understanding.Text-based performance tasks ask student to create a product and/or performance that demonstrates understanding of a piece of text.
24Deepening Text Analysis Through Performance Tasks CCSS Reading Informational Text (Grade 4)3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text including what happened and why based on specific information in the text.
26Group Huddle Stand up and huddle in. Start with the person with the longest hair.Discuss how performance tasks can take students to a higher level of rigor.Share ideas you have for creating performance tasks for students.Sit down when everyone has shared.
27Playing Card Discussion Draw a playing card from the deck.Form a discussion group with the people who are holding the same numbered card.Take turns answering the questions that match your suit.Be sure to ask whether anyone in your group has anything to add about your topic.Discussion continues until all group members have discussed their topics.
28Playing Card Discussion Questions SPADES: What do you think are the greatest advantages and biggest challenges to increasing text-complexity for all students?CLUBS: What will you do to scaffold text so that all students can read increasingly complex texts?DIAMONDS: What do you want to remember about asking text-dependent questions and creating text-dependent tasks?HEARTS: How will the shift to asking text-dependent questions change instruction?