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Putting Text First Denise White, ICLE Consultant

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1 Putting Text First Denise White, ICLE Consultant

2 Goals for this Session: Develop an understanding of the role of text in the CCSS. Explore the three dimensions of text- complexity. Analyze and create text-dependent questions and tasks.

3 5 Pillars: ELA/Content Area Literacy Text complexity High-quality, text-dependent questions and tasks Range and quality of texts Academic and domain-specific vocabulary Writing and research that analyze sources and deploy evidence 3

4 Reading Standard 10, K–2 K Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. 1 With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for Grade 1. 2 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the Grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 4

5 Reading Standard 10, 3–5 3 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the Grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 4 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the Grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 5 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the Grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 5

6 6 Overview of Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative 1.Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative 2.Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Reader and Task 3.Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned Appendix A The Standards include exemplar texts that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade.

7 Quantitative Dimension

8 Increasing Text Complexity Text Complexity Grade Band Previous Lexile Ranges Lexile Ranges Aligned to CCR K–1N/A 2–3450L–725L450L–790L 4–5645L–845L770L–980L 6–8860L–1010L955L–1155L 9–10960L–1115L1080L–1305L 11–College and Career Readiness 1070L–1220L1215L–1355L PG page 8 8

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10 Measures such as: Levels of meaning Levels of purpose Structure Organization Language conventionality Language clarity Knowledge demands Qualitative Measures 10 PG page 7

11 Holes by Louis Sachar 1.Quantitative: 660 Lexile (2-3) 2.Qualitative: –Multiple Levels of Meaning (literal and symbolic) –Unconventional order (back and forth from past to present) –Clear language –Multiple themes, but relatable characters

12 Reader and Task Considerations Considerations such as: Knowledge and experience Purpose for reading Complexity of text-based task Complexity of text-based questions 12 PG page 7

13 Holes by Louis Sachar 1.Reader: –High motivation for upper grade readers because of relatable characters –Relevant themes 2. Task: –Write an essay explaining how the story would be different if Trout hadnt burned down the school or killed Sam. Include at least five examples from the text.

14 Scaffolding Text to Increase Independence and Enhance Understanding 1.Chunking Text 2.Reread with Guidance

15 Write-Pair-Share 1.Jot down a text that you use in your classroom. 2.What makes it complex (qualitative, quantitative, reader/task) 3.What strategies do you use to scaffold the text?

16 Evidence-Related Standards READING A1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. A5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. A8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 16

17 What are Text-Based Questions? Questions that are text dependent can only be answered by a close reading of the text. The evidence in the response comes directly from the text and does not depend on information from outside sources. Text dependent questions are largely interpretive questions and require an understanding that extends beyond recalling basic facts.

18 Uncle Joe drove Caleb to the football game and dropped him off. I will be back to pick you up when the game is over, said Uncle Joe. A few hours later, Uncle Joe pulled into the parking lot and watched the students streaming out of the stadium cheering and high-fiving each other. As Caleb climbed into the car, Uncle Joe remarked, Well, it looks like your team won the game! How did Uncle Joe know that Calebs team won the game?

19 Writing Text-Dependent Questions KEY STEPS: 1. Preview the text multiple times. 2. Identify one or more conclusions that students might draw based on information in the text. 3. Frame the conclusion as a probing question that requires text evidence. 19

20 Identifying Text-Based Conclusions Conclusion: The owner of the restaurant cared more about preparing and serving good food than about making money. 20

21 Conclusion: The owner of the restaurant cared more about preparing and serving good food than about making money. Question: How can you tell from the story that the owner of the restaurant cared more about preparing and serving good food than about making money? Framing Conclusions as Questions 21

22 Asking Text-Dependent Questions STEP 1 Read the article about Vincent Van Gogh on page 13 of your Participants Guide. Write one or two possible conclusions. Re-frame your conclusion as a question. Ask an elbow partner your question and have him/her answer using text evidence. STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 22

23 Deepening Text Analysis Through Text-Based Performance Tasks What is a Performance Task? Tasks that are authentic and meaningful ask students to synthesize knowledge and skills learned and apply them to construct a response, create a product and/or performance that demonstrates understanding. Text-based performance tasks ask student to create a product and/or performance that demonstrates understanding of a piece of text.

24 Deepening Text Analysis Through Performance Tasks CCSS Reading Informational Text (Grade 4) 3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text including what happened and why based on specific information in the text.

25 Deepening Text Analysis through Performance Tasks From…To… Explain whether hurricanes grow in times of low pressure or high pressure. Draw a simple diagram that illustrates what is happening in the atmosphere as a hurricane is born. 25

26 Group Huddle Stand up and huddle in. Start with the person with the longest hair. Discuss how performance tasks can take students to a higher level of rigor. Share ideas you have for creating performance tasks for students. Sit down when everyone has shared.

27 Playing Card Discussion 1.Draw a playing card from the deck. 2.Form a discussion group with the people who are holding the same numbered card. 3.Take turns answering the questions that match your suit. 4.Be sure to ask whether anyone in your group has anything to add about your topic. 5.Discussion continues until all group members have discussed their topics.

28 Playing Card Discussion Questions SPADES: What do you think are the greatest advantages and biggest challenges to increasing text-complexity for all students? CLUBS: What will you do to scaffold text so that all students can read increasingly complex texts? DIAMONDS: What do you want to remember about asking text-dependent questions and creating text-dependent tasks? HEARTS: How will the shift to asking text- dependent questions change instruction?


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