Presentation on theme: "Strategic Writing Across the Curriculum in Grades 7-12"— Presentation transcript:
1Strategic Writing Across the Curriculum in Grades 7-12 Christine LaRoccoInternational Center for Leadership in Education
2National Commission on Writing for America's Families, Schools, and Colleges Survey says:People who cannot write and communicate clearly will not be hired, and if already working, are unlikely to last long enough to be considered for promotion.Two-thirds of salaried employees in large American companies have some writing responsibility.More than 40 percent of large corporations remediate salaried employees with writing deficiencies.
3Survey of 400 business leaders: 72 percent responded that high school graduate entry-level workers are deficient in the basics of writing.
4New Resource Kit: Strategic Writing Across the Curriculum in Grades 7-12 I. Strategic Writing in All ClassesChapter 1 Why Write in All Classes?Chapter 2 What Is Writing to Learn?Chapter 3 Rigorous and Relevant WritingChapter 4 Technical and Business Writing in the Classroom
5II. Writing in the Content Areas Chapter 5 Writing in Language ArtsChapter 6 Writing in Math and ScienceChapter 7 Writing in Social Studies, Career/Tech. Ed
6III. Strategies for Projects /Presentations Chapter 8 Technology Applications in Writing and ResearchChapter 9 The Role of Writing in Project-Based LearningChapter 10 Writing for Presentations
7IV. Writing AssessmentChapter 11 Assessing Writing Across the CurriculumChapter 12 Tips for State Writing Examinations
9Writing Across the Curriculum: Two PartsIn every class, students should be involved inwriting to learnlearning to write.
10Writing for Learning is Different from Writing to Demonstrate Learning
11Writing to Learn Different from traditional writing Different goalsNo polished finished productFocused on higher order thinking, analyzing and summarizing.Writing to Learn helps build relationships,the third “R” between students and teacher.
12Writing to Learn Journals and Learning Logs Lab Logs and Notebooks Quick WritesShort NarrativesSummariesDialogues
13Learning to Write Essays Opinion editorials Technical writing: proposals, observation reports, incident reports, product descriptions, process explanations….Lab reportsJournalistic writingWriting for presentations
14Peter Elbow Students need “low stakes” writing to learn the content. “The goal isn't so much good writing as coming to learn, understand, remember and figure out what you don't yet know.”Elbow, P. (1994). Writing for learning--not just for demonstrating learning. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1-4.
15Writing in response to course content helps students: Think independentlyDevelop insightExplore thoughts and feelingsDevelop intellectual courageReason logicallyFollow the thread of the lesson in their mindsVisualize a concept and make it more concrete by writing down their thoughts
16Writing to LearnOnly in schools where writing is a school-wide program and is pursued daily will students have multiple and adequate opportunities to become proficient writers and thinkers.
17Research on Writing to Learn Student achievement on state assessments, exit exams, and other measurements greatly improves.Students demonstrate growth in core academic learning and stretch learning.North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
18Most surprising:Student comfort level in school increases, and students become more encouraged and optimistic about their future.
19Examples of Writing to Learn Journals and Learning LogsQuick WritesNarrativesSummariesDialoguesReader’s LogsDouble Entry Journals
20Math Prompts: Content and process Describe square root.Describe the difference between parallel and perpendicular.Tell everything you know about prime numbersDescribe the difference between area and perimeter.Write a word problem that involves measuring square feet.Describe the key idea of today’s lesson.
21General Science Writing Prompts Describe something you have done that involved science concepts.What scientific concepts regarding the weather do you wonder about?What is the greatest scientific discovery in the world, and why?What scientific invention would you like to make that would help the most people?
22Social Studies Prompts: Why is it important that people have choices?What does interdependence mean among the peoples of the world?From what countries did people come to the U.S. during the 1800s?What is your definition of justice?What human rights should all people have?If you could start a non-profit foundation to make a difference, what issues would you support?
23Language Arts PromptsWhat is the author saying about society in general?What does the title of the reading imply?How would I feel in this situation?What different effects do fiction and non-fiction have on me?How does this topic apply to my world?
24Double Entry Journal Prompts comparisons to information learned earlierassociations with information from other coursesRelated personal experienceeffects of this information when applied in the world outside the classroom
25Responding to Writing to Learn Collect after several entriesCheck for Student UnderstandingChance to “Listen” to StudentsChance to “Connect” by RespondingJudge Whether Lesson Needs Re-teachingSkim – Write Quick Note of Encouragement
26Responding to Learning Log Entries: “I remember when I felt that way about math.”“Don’t worry, we’ll go over it again.”“You missed a step right here.”! 4 ☺ P
27Learning to Write Rough draft, editing, final copy Introduction, body, conclusion
28Dr. Heidi Hayes JacobsFrom 4th Grade on, students write too many reports…Reports are written at the comprehension level of Bloom’s Taxonomy….
29Not So Many Reports…So we must find other “products” that incorporate analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and higher order thinking skills.
31Look Outside the Schools What kinds of writing occur after academia?Hint:Not comprehension level reports
32Technical Writing Examples Field Test ReportIncident reportSet of InstructionsMechanism DescriptionObservation ReportProcess ExplanationProduct ComparisonProgress ReportProposal, Action Plan
33What schools teach: Purposes for Writing: Display mastery of knowledge, skills, formatTypes of Writing: reports, essays, book reports, poetry, narratives research papers, letters
34What the workplace requires: Purposes for Writing:Inform, persuade, clarify, soften the blow, explain, direct others, recommend, sellTypes of Writing:Brochures, letters, memos, proposals, surveys, ads, instructions, planning documents, messages, recommendations, personnel evaluations, news releases, etc.
35Audience and Content are different: Teacher, test graderContent:Teachers assign the topicsReveal all the information researchedAudience:People with differing knowledge, needs, motivations, and uses for the information. Supervisors, clients, co-workers, general publicContent:Undefined or ill-defined problems (open-ended, relevant, “messy”)Tell what the reader needs to know.
36Four writing skills for transition from academia to workplace: Writers need to complete whole, complex projects, the final product representing only one part of the whole.Writers need to use collaboration as a resource, with individuals and with groups, to solve problems.
37Writers need to adapt both text products and production processes for specific audiences and purposes.Writers need to understand electronic tools and their role in shaping communication and social responsibility.
38To simulate workplace writing, include: Research on audienceCollaboration on design and contentAttention to budget and time constraints
394. Quality controls in editing: workplace writing must be 100% accurate. 5. Production of a visually informative, marketable text using available technology.Fennick, Peters, and Guyon. “Solving Problems in 21st CenturyAcademic and Workplace Writing.” English Journal, March 1993.
40Assignment: Social Studies Students research recent magazine and newspaper articles on immigration to the United States.Investigate the steps immigrants must take to become US citizens.Write a report on the naturalization process. (research paper)What must a person do to become a U. S. citizen? (essay question)
41Take It Further: Add Technical Writing Design a brochure for distribution to local immigrants outlining the steps they must take to become a citizen.Translate the brochure into the appropriate languages.Write an action plan for a half-day workshop about changes in the immigration regulations.
42Technical Writing Examples Field Test ReportIncident reportSet of InstructionsMechanism DescriptionObservation ReportProcess ExplanationProduct ComparisonProgress ReportProposal, Action Plan
43Academic Workplace Writing Descriptive Writing Job DescriptionIncident ReportResumeProcess ExplanationNarrative Writing Observation Report Progress ReportCause & Effect Product Field Test Report
45Advantages of Technical Writing Prescriptive Writing—there’s a “recipe”Must Apply the Highest Standards— Business EnglishShorter—Easier to Grade
46Technical WritingOnly two grades:“A”“NY” (not yet)
47Analyze: Identify the Audience Who is the audience?What does the audience already know?What background do they have? Education, culture, experience?What must this person do, once he/she receives the information?
48Project Based Learning: Add Technical Writing atEach Phase
49At the Start: Formal Proposal Estimated Budget Timeline Overall ConceptEstimated BudgetTimelineEstimated Date of CompletionSketches
50Work in Progress: Progress Report outlining: Original Goals Attained GoalsRemaining GoalsProjected Completion Date (adjusted)
51After the Project: Process explanation Product Description Set of Detailed Technical Instructions
52Take Assignments One Step Further Typical Assignment:Students research recent magazine and newspaper articles on immigration to the United States.Investigate the steps immigrants must take to become US citizens.Write a report on the naturalization process. (research paper)What must a person do to become a U. S. citizen? (essay question)
53Take It Further: Add Technical Writing Design a brochure for distribution to local immigrants outlining the steps they must take to become a citizen.Translate the brochure into the appropriate languages.Write an action plan for a half-day workshop about changes in the immigration regulations.
54Designing a D-Quadrant lesson Example: Biology or Health ClassStudents have completed a unit on the Auditory System.
56Role, Audience, Format, Topic Assign students a real-world role.Workplace, Citizen in CommunityGive them a problem (or topic) to tackle.Determine the audience.What will the product (format) be?
57Biology– Auditory System Role:You are a health care intern for a pediatrician who works with young families.
58Topic:Because so many children contract ear infections, the doctor wants you to develop a handout to explain the problem, the cause, the typical location of the infection, treatment options, and prevention.
59Topic: Ear infection, auditory system, treatment options, prevention. RAFTRole: Health care internAudience: Parents of young childrenFormat: Brochure or flyerTopic: Ear infection, auditory system, treatment options, prevention.
60Why Brochures? Calls for higher order thinking Students work in groups.Nobody works too hard.Each learner is assigned a panel.6 panels students (Cover--together)Learners must condense what they know.
61Integrated Lesson: High School in Indiana English Class Wrote the Brochure TextSpanish II Translated the BrochuresTechnology Designed the Brochures
66Ideas for Complex Tasks Create a city-wide program and write an action plan for...Design a brochureDesign a performance review formDevelop a proposalWrite a letter of recommendationDesign and conduct a surveyPrepare a multimedia presentationWrite an observation reportWrite customer service guidelinesConduct interviews of community leaders and write a...Write a feature article for the local paperDesign a newsletter
67Incident Reports Used by: Insurance companies, sheriffs’ offices, schools, businesses.Why so serious?Legal document, used in court
68Incident Reports Obtain an authentic incident report: Phone the Public Information Officer in the Sheriff’s Department.Explain how you will use it.
69State Writing ExamsHow does technical writing help students prepare for the state writing exams?
70Oregon Topic: Your friend has very poor eating habits. Convince your friend that a nutritious diet is important.Same thinking skill as:Persuasive Proposal
71Delaware Same skills in a: Topic: Product Description Technical DefinitionProcess ExplanationOperation ManualPersuasive ProposalTopic:For a museum contest, write an essay identifying the invention you consider most notable and how it has impacted the world positively or negatively.
72GeorgiaTopic:Write an persuasive editorial that presents alternative solutions for reducing the amount of solid waste in your school environment.Persuasive ProposalMarketing AdvertisementObservation ReportFeasibility ReportTraining Materials
73Lesson Plan: Magazines Ask students to bring hobby magazines(or teacher provides them)Find and share articles that are examples of a product description, a process explanation, instructions, persuasive piece, product comparison, etc.