Presentation on theme: "Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Grades 6-12"— Presentation transcript:
1Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Grades 6-12 Terri SessomsInternational Center for Leadership in Education
2No Child Left BehindProvide focus upon student progress across all groups of learners.
3Not Our Purpose…Not here to turn content teachers into full time reading teachers.These comprehension strategies help students better understand your course content which leads to improved content achievement (EOC).
4Research Shows…Research shows that if content teachers use these strategies minutes (a couple of times each week) students increase reading levels and significantly improve performance on content area standardized testing.
5Desired OutcomesLeaders will be empowered to initiate a vigorous instructional focus on strategic reading – the reading skills and strategies that promote information literacy across all subjects and functional areas as study skills, test taking, and literacy for the world beyond school.
6Desired OutcomesStudents will be empowered with the skill needed to succeed – the ability to process information effectively.Changes in content area instruction will be reflected in strategies that will serve the vast majority of students by incorporating reading skills instruction across the curriculum.
7What’s the Big Deal About Content Area Reading? Trading Spaces…
8Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the associationbetween depression screeningand the model variableshypothesized to be predictiveof screening behavior. For thisanalysis, all significant variablesfrom the bivariate analysis wereentered into the regression asdichotomous variables.
95 Minute Glossary Term - Kid friendly explanation
10Challenges to Reading and Information Gathering in the Content Areas: Concept Density – more ideas and skills in less timeSpecialized Vocabulary - unique and multiple meaningsReadability – higher than student skill levelsLength – longer and more comprehensiveGraphs/Charts/Maps – complex informationNon-Print Sources – online information
11Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor ReadersThink understanding occurs from “getting the words right”.Successful ReadersUnderstand that they must take responsibility for constructing meaning using prior knowledge.
12Today’s schools DO NOT directly teach comprehension strategies and skills beyond the 6th Grade.
13Customer FocusU.S. Dept. of Education states there are 2 types of reading All workers must be able to do:1. Comprehend reading materials related to daily core job responsibilities.2. Read occupational materials related to organizations, trade journals, etc.
14Workplace Expectations *Learning to Learn*Listening and Oral Communication*Competencies in Reading, Writing, and Computation*Adaptability thru Creative Thinking andProblem Solving*Personal Management*Group Interpersonal Skills & Teamwork*Organizational Effectiveness & Leadership
15Lexile Chart w/ Jobs (pg. 69-71 Leading with Reading) Average high school graduate is 1150LJob Reading RequirementsSurveyor LDraftsperson 1480LFarm Mechanic 1010LFarmerHotel Manager 1230Housekeeper 910L
16Earning Potential as Relates to Lexile Levels Between 1000 and 1300L, each additional 150 of reading ability doubles the income expectations of the worker.Do you want your children living at home with you? READ!Students below 1000 will not succeed in the workplace.
17What’s the Best Way to Improve Reading Performance? Research Says… Teach Reading through Content AreasStudents read rather than teacher lectureChallenge all Readers (Even the Best)Expose to new vocabularyExpose to difficult syntaxExpose to challenging literary featuresMonitor constantly (Reading Logs, class selections, etc.)
18What Works Best in Schools? Why Can’t the English Teachers Do it All? Marzano says…Involve students in a program of wide reading that emphasizes vocabulary development.Content Reading – Wide reading opportunities each day in different subject areas exposes student to many more words than basal reader or direct vocabulary list instruction (750 – 1500 words vs. 350 words per year).
19Research on Effects of Poverty on Learning… Students from Poverty enter kindergarten with one half of the speaking and listening vocabulary that their other classmates bring to school.Students from Poverty “don’t get out much” – background information and vocabulary.By the time students from Poverty enter 9th grade, they have one fourth the vocabulary that their classmates have.
20Content Area Terms/Vocabulary Provide direct instruction in vocabulary terms and phrases that are important to specific subject matter content.Exposes student to content rich vocabulary which is directly taught ahead of time to build comprehension.Exposure to integrated and application based vocabulary (higher levels than traditional text book vocabulary) which is directly taught as needed (mini lesson, glossary, dictionary, etc.).
21Most Effective Learning Strategies – McRel Identifying Similarities and DifferencesClassification, CategorizationSummarizing/NotetakingCooperative LearningGraphic OrganizersProviding Appropriate Practice (Guided & Independent)Setting Objectives and Providing Meaningful FeedbackReinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
22William Glasser, The Quality School Learning Activity RetentionAmountof TransferTeach Others/Use Learning90%Practice & Real Application75%50%Discussion Group30%Demonstration20%Audio Visual10%ReadingLecture5%William Glasser, The Quality School
23ALT – Academic Learning Time vs. Time on Task What is each and every student doing to indicate academic success with the learning objective?What is the teacher doing to cause ALT?
24Framework for Lesson Planning (Reading thru Content Areas) Before ReadingDuring ReadingAfter Reading
25Strategies from Kit Anticipation Guides –pg. 117 Cloze – pg. 122 Paraphrasing – pg. 184 (Text pg. 213)Minute Paper – pg. 173Tips on Reading Specific Text – pgGlossary, References, Lexile Library – pg
26Anticipation GuideIdentify concepts you want students to learn from the readingCreate 4-6 statements that support or challenge beliefs or experiencesHave students check whether they agree or disagree with each statement prior to reading the selection
27Anticipation GuidesHave students explain their responses to each statementHave students read the selection to find evidence that either supports or disconfirms each statementHave students rewrite false statements to make them true (individually, partners, or whole groupDiscuss what was learned from reading
28Text: Generalization or Principle Every composite number can be written as a product of prime numbersAnticipation Guide (D, A, NS)___ 20 = 2 X 2 X ____ 14 =___39 = 3 X ____154=2 X 7 X 11___36 = 3 X 12
29Math Text: Statistics … Anticipation Guide ___ There are several kinds of averages for a set of data.___ The mode is the middle # in the set of data.___ Range tells how far apart numbers are in a set of data.___Outliers are always ignored.___Averages are always ignored.
30Anticipation Guide for Science Read the following statements. Mark each statement asA= Agree D= Disagree NS= Not Sure.Key characteristics of the African Elephants1. _________ The trunk is an elongated nose and is used only for breathing.2. _________ Make African Elephants are known as bulls.3. _________ Female African Elephants are known as Heifers.4. _________ Elephants repeatedly teeth grow and can be replaced up to 6 times in a lifetime.5. _________ The average tusk weight for a sixty year old is Elephant is 36 pounds for a male and 20 pounds for females.
32Anticipation Guide for Algebra Chapter 1: Algebra____ An algebraic expression contains a variable, a number, and at least one operation symbol.____ Operations that “undo” each other are called inverse operations.____ The distance a number is from zero is it’s absolute value.____ The value of the variable that makes the equation true is called the inequality.____ To find the value of an expression is to evaluate it.
33Music of the Middle Ages Mark each: A=Agree D=Disagree NS=Not Sure________ 1. An early form of musical notation uses symbols called neums.________ 2. Organum is an early form of harmony with a very specific sound.________ 3. Secular Music is music written for the Church.________ 4. Very early forms of music, such as plainsong, were always written with a specific meter.________ 5. Music for the Church used a triple meter because of its religious significance.
34Cloze DirectionsRead the cloze passage and see how many blanks you can fill in using prior knowledge.Read the complete text passage silently and look for information that would fill in blanks.Turn over the complete passage, read the cloze, and fill in/change blanks.Compare the pre and post reading results.
35Cloze Math ExampleThe prime is a whole number with exactly two ______ ( _____)._____ is the only even prime number.Every whole number can be written as a ______ of _______.A factor is a whole number that ______ exactly into a given _____ number.
36Cloze Complete Passage The prime is a whole number with exactly two divisors (factors).2 is the only even prime number.Every whole number can be written as a product of primes.A factor is a whole number that divides exactly into a given whole number.
37(Tale of Wild Mustangs) Band Class ClozeShackelford Banks(Tale of Wild Mustangs)Wild_______________ have been found on the barrier ______________ of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia since the early _______________ first visited the continent. Some of the horses _______________ to shore as a result of shipwrecks. Others perhaps got ______________ from or were abandoned by ___________________ moving inward.These hardy animals have withstood ____________________, and other harsh conditions. In a few cases they have ____________________ the incursion of man.In 1998, the horses on Shackelford Banks, an uninhabited _______________ in the Outer Banks of ____________ ___________, were going to bee moved elsewhere. However, many _______________ gathered enough support for the horses to _____________ on the island and be ______________. These Mustangs proudly remain and flourish to this day.
38Why Banks is Robbed in Texas Language Arts ClozeWhy Banks is Robbed in Texas
39Word Activities and Cooperative Learning Word Walls – Read My MindSemantic Webs and Word Sorts (Human, Table, Walls)Partner Finds (Terms, Definitions, Examples)
40Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort CategoryTermCategoryTermConceptCategoryTermCategoryTerm
41Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort 3-D Figures2-D FiguresSquareRectangleRhombusConePrismCubeGeometryMeasurementAnglesCircumferenceRadiusVolumeRightAcuteObtuse
42Concept Definition Map Write the term “virus” (concept) in the center of your concept map.Read the text about viruses (concept) to find information to fill in the parts of the concept map.Compare your map with a partner’s map, use text to defend, and adjust as needed.Debrief with class and then write a one paragraph definition of “virus”.
43Virus What category is it in? What are its properties? Examples: What is it different from?
44Concept Definition Map PercentsPercentsExamples:DiscountsTest ScoresInterest RatesCategory:Number ConceptFraction w/denominator of 100 (per 100)PropertiesPercents can be written in fraction or decimal formBenchmark Percents:10% 50%25%Comparisons:RatiosFractions
45Paraphrasing Write the subheading for the section in the first blank. Read the section silently.Close the book and write what you remember about that section.Write your thoughts or connections about the section (prior knowledge, ah-ha, etc.)Reread and see if your paraphrase was accurate. Adjust as needed.Repeat the process until you have finished the text selection.
46Paragraph/Subheading: My Paraphrase: My Thoughts:
47Paraphrasing Math Text Example What are Polygons?A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts.Examples of a polygon?*rectangle *pentagon*triangle *hexagon*pentagon *trapezoidThink??? Why Can’t a Cube be a Polygon?
48Minute Paper Process Read selection silently. Pass out half slips of paper.Ask students to respond to the 3 questions and pass in as they leave.Teacher reviews responses and uses responses to design tomorrow’s instruction to affirm correct points, reteach misconceived points, and to address unanswered questions.
49Minute Paper What are the most significant points? What are your unanswered questions?What are your ah-ha’s?
50Tiered Learning to Differentiate for Ability Levels Everyone do the Anticipation Guide to set purpose for reading content.Low Ability Students complete Paraphrasing strategyAverage Ability Students Complete the ClozeAbove Average Students complete Concept Definition Map
51Resources for Close Out What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action, Marzano (ASCD)International Center for Leadership in EducationStrategic Reading in the Content Areas, Boosting Achievement in Grades 7-12Terri Sessoms,
52Close Outs This and That Evaluations Thank you! I will do more of this…I will do less of that…EvaluationsThank you!
53Cornell Graphic Organizer With a partner or group, survey passage. (Title, subheadings, captions, pictures, first and last sentences)Develop questions from the above and write in the first column.Read passage and highlight details that will help answer questions.When you finish reading, use information to answer questions (second column).
54Cornell Graphic Organizer As a group, discuss the details/answers you recorded in the second column and determine a main idea (What do all of these details have in common?) and write the main idea in the third column.Use the self evaluation key and code your details and questions.Prepare a group presentation for the class on your section of the reading passage.
55Sample Solution:Cornell Method Graphic Organizer ________________QuestionsDetailsMain IdeaSelf Assessment Key:Check mark = I know this.? = I have a question about this.= I need to review this more.
56Cornell Math Text Example What are Polygons?A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts. Some examples of a polygon are:*rectangle*triangle*hexagon*pentagon*trapezoid
57Fishbone – Cause and Effect Read the text on your own, looking for details as they relate to the bones.Fill in details on bones/categories as your read.Work with a partner to compare your fishbones. Use text to defend and adjust details in each category.Share your results with another set of partners.When your foursome has agreed on the details, be ready to share with the class.
58World War II Causes People Government Social,Legal, Ethical World EconomyKey Events
59Concert Review RAFT Role: You are a Music Magazine Columnist Audience: Readers of your Music Magazine who may or may not have heard the Butner-Stem Middle School Band ConcertFormat: Write a concert review in the form of a magazine article.Topic: Butner-Stem Middle School Bands’ performance.
60“I Just Kept on Smiling” ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPICDom FrancisPublicClassified“Have you seen these books?Michael ByrnePlea LetterDon’t punish all of us“I”HimselfJournalWhy I did it all…Anthony FordFreddy OakeNoteWhat should we do to Nicky?
61Ideas for Student Products Design a brochureWrite an action planDevelop a proposalDesign a flyerWrite an employee handbook sectionWrite a letter of recommendationPrepare a multimedia presentationWrite a speech