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Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Grades 6-12 Terri Sessoms International Center for Leadership in Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Grades 6-12 Terri Sessoms International Center for Leadership in Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategic Reading in the Content Areas: Grades 6-12 Terri Sessoms International Center for Leadership in Education

2 No Child Left Behind Provide focus upon student progress across all groups of learners.

3 Not Our Purpose… Not here to turn content teachers into full time reading teachers. These comprehension strategies help students better understand your course content which leads to improved content achievement (EOC).

4 Research Shows… Research shows that if content teachers use these strategies minutes (a couple of times each week) students increase reading levels and significantly improve performance on content area standardized testing.

5 Desired Outcomes Leaders will be empowered to initiate a vigorous instructional focus on strategic reading – the reading skills and strategies that promote information literacy across all subjects and functional areas as study skills, test taking, and literacy for the world beyond school.

6 Desired Outcomes Students will be empowered with the skill needed to succeed – the ability to process information effectively. Changes in content area instruction will be reflected in strategies that will serve the vast majority of students by incorporating reading skills instruction across the curriculum.

7 Whats the Big Deal About Content Area Reading? Trading Spaces…

8 Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between depression screening and the model variables hypothesized to be predictive of screening behavior. For this analysis, all significant variables from the bivariate analysis were entered into the regression as dichotomous variables.

9 5 Minute Glossary Term - Kid friendly explanation Term – Kid friendly explanation

10 Challenges to Reading and Information Gathering in the Content Areas: Concept Density – more ideas and skills in less time Specialized Vocabulary - unique and multiple meanings Readability – higher than student skill levels Length – longer and more comprehensive Graphs/Charts/Maps – complex information Non-Print Sources – online information

11 Characteristics of Poor and Successful Readers: Poor Readers Think understanding occurs from getting the words right. Successful Readers Understand that they must take responsibility for constructing meaning using prior knowledge.

12 Todays schools DO NOT directly teach comprehension strategies and skills beyond the 6 th Grade.

13 Customer Focus U.S. Dept. of Education states there are 2 types of reading All workers must be able to do: 1. Comprehend reading materials related to daily core job responsibilities. 2. Read occupational materials related to organizations, trade journals, etc.

14 Workplace Expectations *Learning to Learn *Listening and Oral Communication *Competencies in Reading, Writing, and Computation *Adaptability thru Creative Thinking and Problem Solving *Personal Management *Group Interpersonal Skills & Teamwork *Organizational Effectiveness & Leadership

15 Lexile Chart w/ Jobs (pg Leading with Reading) Average high school graduate is 1150L JobReading Requirements Surveyor 1370L Draftsperson1480L Farm Mechanic1010L Farmer1210 Hotel Manager1230 Housekeeper 910L

16 Earning Potential as Relates to Lexile Levels Between 1000 and 1300L, each additional 150 of reading ability doubles the income expectations of the worker. Do you want your children living at home with you? READ! Students below 1000 will not succeed in the workplace.

17 Whats the Best Way to Improve Reading Performance? Research Says… Teach Reading through Content Areas Students read rather than teacher lecture Challenge all Readers (Even the Best) Expose to new vocabulary Expose to difficult syntax Expose to challenging literary features Monitor constantly (Reading Logs, class selections, etc.)

18 What Works Best in Schools? Why Cant the English Teachers Do it All? Marzano says… Involve students in a program of wide reading that emphasizes vocabulary development. Content Reading – Wide reading opportunities each day in different subject areas exposes student to many more words than basal reader or direct vocabulary list instruction (750 – 1500 words vs. 350 words per year).

19 Research on Effects of Poverty on Learning… Students from Poverty enter kindergarten with one half of the speaking and listening vocabulary that their other classmates bring to school. Students from Poverty dont get out much – background information and vocabulary. By the time students from Poverty enter 9 th grade, they have one fourth the vocabulary that their classmates have.

20 Content Area Terms/Vocabulary Provide direct instruction in vocabulary terms and phrases that are important to specific subject matter content. Exposes student to content rich vocabulary which is directly taught ahead of time to build comprehension. Exposure to integrated and application based vocabulary (higher levels than traditional text book vocabulary) which is directly taught as needed (mini lesson, glossary, dictionary, etc.).

21 Most Effective Learning Strategies – McRel Identifying Similarities and Differences Classification, Categorization Summarizing/Notetaking Cooperative Learning Graphic Organizers Providing Appropriate Practice (Guided & Independent) Setting Objectives and Providing Meaningful Feedback Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

22 Amount of Transfer Teach Others/Use Learning Practice & Real Application Discussion Group Demonstration Audio Visual Reading Lecture 90% 75% 50% 30% 20% 10% 5% Learning Activity Retention William Glasser, The Quality School

23 ALT – Academic Learning Time vs. Time on Task What is each and every student doing to indicate academic success with the learning objective? What is the teacher doing to cause ALT?

24 Framework for Lesson Planning (Reading thru Content Areas) Before Reading During Reading After Reading

25 Strategies from Kit Anticipation Guides –pg. 117 Cloze – pg. 122 Paraphrasing – pg. 184 (Text pg. 213) Minute Paper – pg. 173 Tips on Reading Specific Text – pg Glossary, References, Lexile Library – pg

26 Anticipation Guide Identify concepts you want students to learn from the reading Create 4-6 statements that support or challenge beliefs or experiences Have students check whether they agree or disagree with each statement prior to reading the selection

27 Anticipation Guides Have students explain their responses to each statement Have students read the selection to find evidence that either supports or disconfirms each statement Have students rewrite false statements to make them true (individually, partners, or whole group Discuss what was learned from reading

28 Text: Generalization or Principle Every composite number can be written as a product of prime numbers Anticipation Guide (D, A, NS) ___ 20 = 2 X 2 X 5 ____ 14 = ___39 = 3 X 13 ____154=2 X 7 X 11 ___36 = 3 X 12

29 Math Text: Statistics … Anticipation Guide ___ There are several kinds of averages for a set of data. ___ The mode is the middle # in the set of data. ___ Range tells how far apart numbers are in a set of data. ___Outliers are always ignored. ___Averages are always ignored.

30 Anticipation Guide for Science Read the following statements. Mark each statement as A= Agree D= Disagree NS= Not Sure. Key characteristics of the African Elephants 1. _________ The trunk is an elongated nose and is used only for breathing. 2. _________ Make African Elephants are known as bulls. 3. _________ Female African Elephants are known as Heifers. 4. _________ Elephants repeatedly teeth grow and can be replaced up to 6 times in a lifetime. 5. _________ The average tusk weight for a sixty year old is Elephant is 36 pounds for a male and 20 pounds for females.


32 Anticipation Guide for Algebra Chapter 1: Algebra 1. ____ An algebraic expression contains a variable, a number, and at least one operation symbol. 2. ____ Operations that undo each other are called inverse operations. 3. ____ The distance a number is from zero is its absolute value. 4. ____ The value of the variable that makes the equation true is called the inequality. 5. ____ To find the value of an expression is to evaluate it.

33 Music of the Middle Ages Mark each: A=AgreeD=DisagreeNS=Not Sure ________ 1. An early form of musical notation uses symbols called neums. ________ 2. Organum is an early form of harmony with a very specific sound. ________ 3. Secular Music is music written for the Church. ________ 4. Very early forms of music, such as plainsong, were always written with a specific meter. ________ 5. Music for the Church used a triple meter because of its religious significance.

34 Cloze Directions Read the cloze passage and see how many blanks you can fill in using prior knowledge. Read the complete text passage silently and look for information that would fill in blanks. Turn over the complete passage, read the cloze, and fill in/change blanks. Compare the pre and post reading results.

35 Cloze Math Example The prime is a whole number with exactly two ______ ( _____). _____ is the only even prime number. Every whole number can be written as a ______ of _______. A factor is a whole number that ______ exactly into a given _____ number.

36 Cloze Complete Passage The prime is a whole number with exactly two divisors (factors). 2 is the only even prime number. Every whole number can be written as a product of primes. A factor is a whole number that divides exactly into a given whole number.

37 Shackelford Banks (Tale of Wild Mustangs) Wild_______________ have been found on the barrier ______________ of Georgia, the Carolinas, and Virginia since the early _______________ first visited the continent. Some of the horses _______________ to shore as a result of shipwrecks. Others perhaps got ______________ from or were abandoned by ___________________ moving inward. These hardy animals have withstood ____________________, and other harsh conditions. In a few cases they have ____________________ the incursion of man. In 1998, the horses on Shackelford Banks, an uninhabited _______________ in the Outer Banks of ____________ ___________, were going to bee moved elsewhere. However, many _______________ gathered enough support for the horses to _____________ on the island and be ______________. These Mustangs proudly remain and flourish to this day. Band Class Cloze

38 Language Arts Cloze Why Banks is Robbed in Texas

39 Word Activities and Cooperative Learning Word Walls – Read My Mind Semantic Webs and Word Sorts (Human, Table, Walls) Partner Finds (Terms, Definitions, Examples)

40 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort Concept Category Term Category Term Category Term Category Term

41 Semantic Web Example for Word Wall – Extension of Word Sort Geometry 2-D Figures Angles 3-D Figures Measurement Square Rectangle Rhombus Circumference Radius Volume Cone Prism Cube Right Acute Obtuse

42 Concept Definition Map Write the term virus (concept) in the center of your concept map. Read the text about viruses (concept) to find information to fill in the parts of the concept map. Compare your map with a partners map, use text to defend, and adjust as needed. Debrief with class and then write a one paragraph definition of virus.

43 Virus Examples: What category is it in? What is it different from? What are its properties?

44 Concept Definition Map Percents Examples: Discounts Test Scores Interest Rates Category: Number Concept Fraction w/denominator of 100 (per 100) Properties Percents can be written in fraction or decimal form Benchmark Percents: 10% 50% 25% Comparisons: Ratios Fractions

45 Paraphrasing Write the subheading for the section in the first blank. Read the section silently. Close the book and write what you remember about that section. Write your thoughts or connections about the section (prior knowledge, ah-ha, etc.) Reread and see if your paraphrase was accurate. Adjust as needed. Repeat the process until you have finished the text selection.

46 Paragraph/Subheading:My Paraphrase: My Thoughts: Paragraph/Subheading:My Paraphrase: My Thoughts:

47 Paraphrasing Math Text Example What are Polygons? A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts. Examples of a polygon? *rectangle*pentagon *triangle*hexagon *pentagon*trapezoid Think??? Why Cant a Cube be a Polygon?

48 Minute Paper Process Read selection silently. Pass out half slips of paper. Ask students to respond to the 3 questions and pass in as they leave. Teacher reviews responses and uses responses to design tomorrows instruction to affirm correct points, reteach misconceived points, and to address unanswered questions.

49 Minute Paper What are the most significant points? What are your unanswered questions? What are your ah-has?

50 Tiered Learning to Differentiate for Ability Levels Everyone do the Anticipation Guide to set purpose for reading content. Low Ability Students complete Paraphrasing strategy Average Ability Students Complete the Cloze Above Average Students complete Concept Definition Map

51 Resources for Close Out What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action, Marzano (ASCD) International Center for Leadership in Education –Strategic Reading in the Content Areas, Boosting Achievement in Grades 7-12 –Terri Sessoms,

52 Close Outs This and That –I will do more of this… –I will do less of that… Evaluations Thank you!

53 Cornell Graphic Organizer With a partner or group, survey passage. (Title, subheadings, captions, pictures, first and last sentences) Develop questions from the above and write in the first column. Read passage and highlight details that will help answer questions. When you finish reading, use information to answer questions (second column).

54 Cornell Graphic Organizer As a group, discuss the details/answers you recorded in the second column and determine a main idea (What do all of these details have in common?) and write the main idea in the third column. Use the self evaluation key and code your details and questions. Prepare a group presentation for the class on your section of the reading passage.

55 Cornell Method Graphic Organizer ________________ Questions Details Main Idea Sample Solution: Self Assessment Key: Check mark = I know this. ? = I have a question about this. = I need to review this more.

56 Cornell Math Text Example What are Polygons? A polygon is a simple, closed, plane figure made up of three or more line segments. There are no dangling parts. Some examples of a polygon are: *rectangle *triangle *hexagon *pentagon *trapezoid

57 Fishbone – Cause and Effect Read the text on your own, looking for details as they relate to the bones. Fill in details on bones/categories as your read. Work with a partner to compare your fishbones. Use text to defend and adjust details in each category. Share your results with another set of partners. When your foursome has agreed on the details, be ready to share with the class.

58 World War II Causes World War II Government People Social,Legal, Ethical Key Events Economy

59 Concert Review RAFT Role: You are a Music Magazine Columnist Audience: Readers of your Music Magazine who may or may not have heard the Butner-Stem Middle School Band Concert Format: Write a concert review in the form of a magazine article. Topic: Butner-Stem Middle School Bands performance.

60 I Just Kept on Smiling ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPIC Dom FrancisPublicClassifiedHave you seen these books? Michael Byrne Dom FrancisPlea LetterDont punish all of us IHimselfJournalWhy I did it all… Anthony Ford Freddy OakeNoteWhat should we do to Nicky?

61 Ideas for Student Products Design a brochure Write an action plan Develop a proposal Design a flyer Write an employee handbook section Write a letter of recommendation Prepare a multimedia presentation Write a speech


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