During the course -Network Types (Small World, Scale Free, Random) -Network Models (Erdos-Renyi, Scale-Free, Hierarchical Networks, Duplication Divergence) -Network Properties (Degree, Degree Distribution, Clustering, Degree Correlations, Rich Club Phenomena, Average Path Length, Diameter, Community Structure etc…) -Dynamical Properties (Failure and attack tolerance, epidemic thresholds, etc..) -Social Systems Team assembly and the invisible college, the dynamics of social ties and groups -Biological Systems Molecular Networks (PPI, Metabolic), Disease Networks. We discovered that it was a bit too much for only seven sessions
How can we describe the economic development of nations?
GDP per capita Labor, Land, Capital, Technological Sophistication Production Function Robinson, J. (1953) The production function and the theory of capital, Review of Economic Studies, vol XXI, 1953, pp. 81-106 Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function RM Solow - The Review of Economics and Statistics, 1957
Product 1 Country C 1 Country C 2 Country C 3 Product 2 Product 3 Product k=3 k=4 k=1 Method of Reflections Degree (Countries) Degree (Products) DiversificationUbiquity
Method of Reflections Product 1 Country C 1 Country C 2 Country C 3 Product 2 Product 3 Product Country C 1 Country C 2 Country C 3 k 1,1 =7/3 k 2,1 =2 k 3,1 =3 k 1 = Standardness: Average ubiquity of products exported by a country Mirror
k=3 k=4 k=1 Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 Product Country C 1 Country C 2 Country C 3 Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 Product Method of Reflections 1 = Complexity: Average diversification of a products exporters
Country VariablesProduct Variables k0k1k2k3k4k0k1k2k3k4 Method of Reflections
Ubiquity Produced in Few, Highly Diversified, Countries Produced in Many Highly Diversified Countries Produced in Many Non Diversified Countries Produced in Few Non-Diversified Countries Method of Reflections: diagram Complexity
Countries How many different pieces you have? How rare are your pieces?
Many different pieces If you have: We might expect you to build many products, including those requiring many different pieces and rare pieces. Few different pieces We expect you to build few products, that are made by many others, as it is likely to have those few pieces High Diversification (k 0 ), Low Standardness (k 1 ) Low Diversfication (k 0 ), High Standardness (k 1 )
Many different pieces If a product requires: We might expect you to find that product In few countries that have many pieces and therefore build many products Few different pieces We expect to find that products in many Countries, including those with few pieces Low ubiquity (k 0 ), High complexity (k 1 ) High ubiquity (k 0 ), Low complexity (k 1 ) Few rare pieces We expect to find that products in few countries Low Ubiquity (k 0 )
Concluding Remarks INTRODUCTION: 1.- The product space is heterogeneous and can be approximated by studying export data using network methods. 2.- The heterogeneity of the product space matters for development. (The location of a country in the product space determines their ability to diversify) MAIN BODY 1.- We can quantify the productive structure of countries and the sophistication of products by studying exports as a bipartite network. 2.- This network characterization of productive structure is associated with income and growth, suggesting that it is able to capture some fundamental properties of production. FINALE 1.- We can explain some of this observations using the Lego Theory of Development