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Testing for Web Accessibility John Slatin Access U May, 2009 Jim Thatcher Accessibility Consulting Austin, Texas.

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Presentation on theme: "Testing for Web Accessibility John Slatin Access U May, 2009 Jim Thatcher Accessibility Consulting Austin, Texas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Testing for Web Accessibility John Slatin Access U May, 2009 Jim Thatcher Accessibility Consulting Austin, Texas

2 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 2 Resources These slides at PowerPoint testing.ppttesting.ppt Resources in order of appearance there too This class is very much a resource list!

3 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 3 Questions Please ask questions or … Make comments at any time … If it isnt clear to you – ASK!

4 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 4 Outline Testing for Web Accessibility – Means? Standards and Guidelines Testability Contrast example Automatic Testing tools Free tools Commercial Tools Testing tool report Tools that assist with Human Review Lets test a page

5 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 5 Testing for Web Accessibility Web Accessibility: Web resources are accessible if people with disabilities can use them as effectively as non-disabled people (UT Accessibility Institute)UT Accessibility Institute So testing means user testing with disabled and non- disabled people? Instead there are standards and guidelines against which we can test

6 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 6 Standards and Guidelines WCAG 1.0 Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 Section 508 Standards WCAG 2.0 Section 508 refresh See Section 6 IBM web guidelines

7 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 7 Priority Section provisions all priority one! WCAG guidelines 65 Checkpoints – 16 Priority 1, 30 Priority 2, 19 Priority 3 checkpoints WCAG guidelines 56 Success Criteria – 18 Level A, 17 Level AA, 21 Level AAA success criteria 508 Refresh – who knows – Public comment 1Q 2010 – at the earliest

8 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 8 WCAG 2 – testability is key All WCAG 2.0 success criteria are written to be testable. While some can be tested by computer programs, others require human testers for part or all of the test. My favorite testability example … Contrast

9 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 9 Testability - Example WCAG 1.0 Priority 2: 2.2 Ensure that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white screen. Sufficient contrast? Color deficits?

10 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 10 Flickr – black and white

11 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 11 Testability - Contrast WCAG 2.0 Level AA: Text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 … 3:1 for larger text (18pt or 14pt bold) (Level AA) Contrast Ratio? Tools will answer that question – analyser.html (also pull down from toolbar) analyser.html Try that with Another to check out:

12 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 12 Testable? Automatic tests? Testable by a computer vs. requiring human judgment Only ~25% of accessibility errors can be detected by computers (Mike Cooper) Many claim compliant/accessible because no errors reported by testing tool Testing all for Section 508 Standards discussed

13 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 13 A current example of testing … Recovery.govRecovery.gov complies with all of the automatic checkpoints of the Section 508 Accessibility Guidelines, and has been manually verified for nearly all of the manual checkpoints. This compliance has been tested using Watchfire WebXACT program. ( To be in America) To be in America Accessibility of Recovery.gov

14 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 14 Automatic tests (about 12 tests) (3) Missing alt on,, or with type=image (3) Empty alt on in without text, same for or with type=image (1) Form control with no title or label (or empty) (2) No title on frame or iframe (1) Sever-side image map (image link with ismap ) (1) Missing lang attribute for page (1) [No HTML headings ( h1, h2, …) on page]

15 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 15 Testing tools (outline) Automatic web accessibility testing Human Review – tools that assist User testing Beyond the scope of this class But check out Shawn Lawton Henrys Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout DesignIntegrating Accessibility Throughout Design The whole book is there One of 11 co-authors of Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory ComplianceWeb Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance

16 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 16 Automatic Testing (outline) Automatic web accessibility testing Free 1-page tools More general free tools Desktop tools Enterprise tools Tools lists:

17 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 17 Some Free 1-page tools on the web CynthiaSays (HiSoftware) Bobby is gone! Truwex (Erigami) New kid on the block 2 years ago Worldspace by Deque – New Kid this year For Google Toolbar, Sample file

18 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 18 Sample File for Testing Issue CynthiaTruexWorldspace 1Server-side map Yes 2 Two input fields – label but same id No 3Empty alt on image link NoYes 4 No alt on image (duh) Yes 5 title attributes on input fields (good) NoYes 6 No alt on image button YesNoYes 7 No alt in image map area Yes 8 Iframe with no title NoYes

19 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 19 The Truex Map – very cool

20 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 20 More General Free Tools The WAVE (Utah State) (version 4.0) AChecker ( WCAG 2.0 )http://www.atutor.ca/achecker/ Functional Accessibility Evaluator (U of Ill )

21 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 21 Desktop Commercial Tools Ramp ($69-$1499) InFocus ($1795)

22 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 22 Enterprise Tools (expensive) WebKing by Parasoft ebKing ebKing Rational Policy Tester by IBM (was WebXM by Watchfire) Worldspace by Deque

23 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 23 Six Commercial Tools, A Comparison Chapter 13 – Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance …Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance … See Forty issues Based on 70 files Example – how the tools deal with link text

24 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 24 Link text - WCAG 1.0 WCAG : Clearly identify the target of each link. (P2) (Not 508 requirement) Interpreted to mean good link text or title attribute on anchor element. It is testable – evaluators would usually agree on good link text.

25 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 25 Link text – automatic tests Raise errors (or warnings) for Common phrases, more, click here, more …, details etc. List of such is editable with several tools. Inadequate phrase like click here but with title attribute – should pass Same link text different href – should fail without title. Extreme case - Empty link text or spaces for link text is error without title.

26 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 26 Link text – WCAG The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text and its programmatically determined link context. (A) The purpose of each link can be identified from the link text. (AAA)

27 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 27 Testing tools and link text Test OKBobby In- Focus LIFTRampW-KingW-XM 21. Click here 4 yesno yes 22. Image link with empty alt-text 4 yesnoyes noyes 23. Image link with spaces for alt-text 5 yesnoyes 24. Link with text and image with empty alt-text 3 no yes noyes 25. Click here plus title 2 no yes no Details at

28 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 28 Testing tools - Results TotalBobby In- Focus LIFTRampW-KingW-XM Correct Results Details at

29 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 29 Human Review Notepad (source code) Screen Readers and other AT Special issue tools (like contrast) Toolbars (the best news) Jims Favelets (User testing – Beyond scope )

30 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 30 Assistive Technology Testing with assistive technologies HPR (IBM) No longer available JAWS (Freedom Scientific) Window-Eyes (GW Micro) Fangs

31 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 31 Toolbars - for anyone interested in accessibility Web accessibility toolbar - The Paciello Group about.html about.html Best thing that has happened for accessibility – and a toolbar for Firefox Web Developer Extension for Firefox

32 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 32 IBM Accessibility Testing Matt King started monitoring all of IBM.com (13 million pages) in Reports to Mgrs and VPs Five Years later – Detectable errors way down. Accessible? Need Human Review – but too many pages Idea: use sampling – like a political poll –evaluate sample pages and conclude results for whole site

33 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 33 Human Review for IBM Needed time per page around 3-5 minutes The toolbars dont do what testing tools do. Need value of software testing tools in the human review (e.g., no alt attribute or no form label ) Dont make me look for these. Simplify human evaluation – scoring (AIR) My evaluation techniques (modified from Toolbar) (includes description of the process)

34 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 34 The Testing Process I use Sample report Lets look at some of the same pages – It is a mix of Web Accessibility Toolbar and Jims favelets The way to do accessibility testing

35 May 11-12, 2009 Testing for accessibility 35 Thanks! Thanks for being here I can be reached at You can contact Knowbility


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