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NAPLES Novel Approaches for Preventing or Limiting Event Study Randomised Comparison of Bivalirudin Monotherapy versus Unfractionated Heparin plus Tirofiban.

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Presentation on theme: "NAPLES Novel Approaches for Preventing or Limiting Event Study Randomised Comparison of Bivalirudin Monotherapy versus Unfractionated Heparin plus Tirofiban."— Presentation transcript:

1 NAPLES Novel Approaches for Preventing or Limiting Event Study Randomised Comparison of Bivalirudin Monotherapy versus Unfractionated Heparin plus Tirofiban in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Stenting Carlo Briguori, MD, PhD Laboratoy of Interventional Cardiology Clinica Mediterranea, Naples - Italy

2 I, Carlo Briguori DO NOT have a financial interest/arrangement or affiliation with one or more organizations that could be perceived as a real or apparent conflict of interest in the context of the subject of this presentation. Disclosure Statement of Financial Interest

3 In diabetic patients undergoing PCI the use of platelet glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduce short- and long-term mortality 1-3 Contemporaty guidelines recommend platelet Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors administration in diabetic patients undergoing elective and urgent PCI 4-5 Background 1 Roffi M. et al. Circulation 2001; 104: Topol EJ. et al. Lancet 1999; 354: Bhatt DL. et al. JACC 2000; 35: Ryden L. et al. Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 88 5 King SB. et al. JACC 2008; 51: 172

4 Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor that demonstrated antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory properties similar to the combination of unfractionated heparin (UFH) plus Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors 1-2 Unlike UFH, bivalirudin 3-4 does not activate platelets is able to interfere with both circulating and clot-bound thrombin when added to clopidogrel, it achieves additional inhibition of platelet function decreasing platelet surfage coverage Background 1 Keating FK. et al. Thrombosis research 2004; 113: 27 2 Lev EI. et al. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2006; 95: Sibbing D. et al. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: Anand SX. et al. Am J Cardiol 2007; 100: 417

5 Few data exist comparing bivalirudin with UFH plus GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in diabetic patients Post-hoc analysis of REPLACE-2 and ACUITY 1-2 no difference in short and long-term ischemic events lower rate of major bleeding Background 1 Gurm HS. et al. JACC 2005; 45: Feit F. et al. JACC 2008; 51: 1645

6 To compare the acute and 1-month safety, tolerability and efficacy of Bivalirudin alone as compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH) plus tirofiban in diabetic patients undergoing elective PCI Purpose

7 NAPLES DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-arm, single-center clinical study Diabetic Patients Elective PCI Biomarker negative UFH + Tirofiban Bivalirudin alone ASA Clopidogrel (loading dose 300 mg the day before procedure) Elective PCI 30 day endpoints Death, MI, IUR, ACUITY major bleeding (net clinical outcome)

8 Hypothesis: Riduction in the primary composite endpoint from 38% in the UFH plus tirofiban group to 23.5% in the Bivalirudin alone group 1 Sample size : A total of 316 patients (158 each group) will be necessary to gave the study 80% power and a significance level <0.05 Sample size 1 REPLACE-2 trial - Lincoff AM, et al. JAMA 2003; 289: 853

9 Inclusion criteria Diabetes mellitus treated by insulin and/or oral agents Age 18 y De novo lesion in a native coronary artery Elective PCI

10 Exclusion criteria Primary or rescue PCI ACS with elevated cardiac markers Pregnancy Recent (<1 month) previous PCI Restenotic lesion SVG or LIMA treatment Active bleeding or bleeding diathesis, trauma or gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract bleeding Prior intracranial bleeding Platelets < /mm 3 History of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Creatinine >3.0 mg/dL or dialysis Recent (<6 h) UFH or (<12 h) GP IIb/IIIa use Oral anticoagulant use

11 Study Medications UF HeparinTirofiban*Bivalirudin# U/Kg g/Kg mg/kg iv bolus 0.15/min iv bolus iv /h infusion iv 4 1 Additional 20 U/Kg bolus if ACT <250 seconds 2 Discontinued at 12 hours following the procedure 3 Additional 0.3 mg/kg bolus if ACT < 250 seconds 4 Discontinued at end of PCI *In eGFR <30 ml/kg/1.73 m 2 the dose was halved # In eGFR <30 ml/kg/1.73 m2, the infusion rate was reduced to 1 mg/kg/h

12 Non-Q wave MI: Periprocedural = CKMB 3X ULN Within 30-day = CKMB 2X ULN Q wave MI: CKMB 2X ULN with new significant Q waves in 2 contiguous leads Major bleeding: intracranial, intraocular, or retroperitoneal hemorrhage, access site with intervention, hematoma >5cm, Hgb drop >3g/dL with source or >4g/dL without source, transfusion >2 units of packed red blood cells pr whole blood Minor bleeding: Clinically overt bleeding not meeting criteria for major bleeding. Definitions

13 Patients assessed for eligibility (n=366) Excluded (n=31) 6 withdrew consent 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria 335 patients randomized 168 allocated to UFH plus tirofiban group 167 allocated to Bivalirudin group

14 Clinical Characteristics UFH + Tirofiban (N=168) Bivalirudin alone (N=167) P value Age, yrs (mean SD) Female, % BMI (kg/m 2 ) Family history for CAD39 (23.2%)44 (26.3%)0.53 Treatment of Diabetes Oral agents Insulin 116 (69%) 52 (31%) 126 (75.4%) 41 (24.6%) 0.57 Hypertension, %131 (78%)125 (74.9%)0.52 Hyperlipidemia, %109 (64.9%)105 (62.9%)0.73 Current smoker, %35 (20.8%)34 (20.4%)0.93 Prior MI, %75 (44.6%)75 (44.9%)1.00 Prior PCI, %41 (24.4%)46 (27.5%)0.53 Prior CABG, %15 (8.9%)12 (7.2%)0.69 LVEF, % (mean SD) CKD*35 (35.1%)67 (40.4%)0.36 * Estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2

15 Clinical Characteristics UFH + Tirofiban (N=168) Bivalirudin alone (N=167) P value Symptoms Asymptomatic Stable angina Unstable angina 38 (22.8%) 98 (58.6%) 31 (18.5%) 46 (27.8%) 102 (60.8%) 19 (11.4%) 0.17 HbA1c, % (mean SD) Statin treatment139 (82.7%)138 (82.6%)1.00

16 Angiographic & Procedural Characteristics UFH + Tirofiban (N=168) Bivalirudin alone (N=167) P value Procedure strategy Stent DES Rotablator DCA 168 (100%) 141 (84.1%) 6 (3.6%) 1 (0.6%) 167 (100%) 135 (80.8%) 6 (3.6%) Multivessel stenting21 (12.5%)22 (13.2%)0.87 Direct stenting33 (19.4%)43 (25.8%)0.10 No. treated vessel/patient No. treated lesion/patient Target vessel LAD Cx RCA LM 80 (42.2%) 55 (28.9%) 52 (27.6%) 3 (1.3%) 90 (46.8%) 55 (28.8%) 42 (21.9%) 5 (2.6%) 0.38 Complex (B2/C) lesions138 (65.1%)139 (59.7%)0.25 Bifurcation lesions36 (17.2%)54 (23.3%)0.11 Calcified lesions70 (32.8%)79 (33.9%)0.84

17 Angiographic & Procedural Characteristics UFH + Tirofiban (N=168) Bivalirudin alone (N=167) P value Preprocedural QCA RVD, mm MLD, mm DS, % Lesion length, mm Postprocedural QCA RVD, mm MLD, mm DS, % Acute gain, mm Stent/patient Stent length, mm Max inflation pressure, atm Radial approach7 (4.2%)4 (2.4%)0.20 BA ratio Angiographic complications 1 7 (4.2%)8 (4.8%) Intraprocedural slow-flow, residual dissection, coronary rupture, side branch closure or compromise

18 Bleeding risk score* UFH & Tirofiban mean risk score = 4.3±3.9 Bivalirudin mean risk score = 4.5±4.2 1 risk 1.3% 2-6 risk 1.8% 7-9 risk 2.7% 10 risk 5.0% p = 0.68 * According to Nikolsky E. et al. Eur Heart J 2007; 28: % of case

19 30-day outcome UFH + Tirofiban (N=168) Bivalirudin alone (N=167) P value Net clinical outcome35 (20.8%)20 (12%)0.038 Death00 MI21 (12.5%)17 (10.2%)0.61 Q-wave MI00 Non Q-wave MI21 (12.5%)17 (10.2%)0.61 Unplanned revasc00 Bleeding Major Minor 13 (7.7%) 3 (1.8%) 10 (6%) 3 (1.8%) 1 (0.6%) 2 (1.2%)

20 P = P = P = UFH plus tirofiban (n = 168) Bivalirudin (n = 167) OR, % CI, OR, % CI, OR, % CI,

21 Risk score < 7 n = 227 (67.8%) Risk score 7 n = 108 (32.2%) UFH plus tirofiban (n = 168) Bivalirudin (n = 167) P= P= OR, % CI, OR, % CI, % (n=8/117) 0% (n= 0/110) 9.8% (n=5/57) 5.3% (n=3/51) % Low RiskModerate - High Risk

22 Conclusions In diabetic patients undergoing elective PCI the antithrombotic strategy of bivalirudin monotherapy compared with unfractionated heparin plus tirofiban is safe and feasible. Antithrombotic regimen with bivalirudin alone suppresses adverse 30-day ischaemic events to a similar extent as does unfractionated heparin plus tirofiban. Bivalirudin administration compared with unfractionated heparin plus tirofiban is associated with a reduction of bleeding. Bivalirudin administration, compared with unfractionated heparin plus tirofiban, results in a significant decrease of the composite end-point of 30-day death, urgent revascularization, myocardial infarction and bleeding.


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