Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GREEK ART. OVERVIEW Alternative views to Plato in Rep. 10 Poets, philosophers, sophists, et al. on art Greek art in context –Art and.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GREEK ART. OVERVIEW Alternative views to Plato in Rep. 10 Poets, philosophers, sophists, et al. on art Greek art in context –Art and."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GREEK ART

2 OVERVIEW Alternative views to Plato in Rep. 10 Poets, philosophers, sophists, et al. on art Greek art in context –Art and the viewer Art and text in combination to produce effect Emotions, politics, erotics of Greek art –Psychological power –Art as rhetoric –Platos bugbears…?

3 PLATONIC AESTHETICS I Inseparable from –Education –Ontology –Epistemology –Psychology –Ethics & Justice –Politics Issues addressed elsewhere in Republic –Plato addresses legacy of poets: Homer, Hesiod, et al. –His intellectual precursors –Poets seen as teachers of religion, ethics, law

4 REPUBLIC 10: Critique of Mimetic Painting & Poetry Mimesis now rejected –Psychology, epistemology, education –Theory of Forms –Outlined in books 4-9 of Rep. Painting used as extensive analogy for mimetic poetry Both media subject to Platos –Ontology –Epistemology –Psychology –Ethics & Justice

5 REPUBLIC 10 ( ): On Painting & Poetry Ontology –Painting = mimesis phantasmatos –Imitation of an appearance –Couch example and invocation of Forms Epistemology –Painters and poets = ignorant, so, too, their public –3 removes from truth –User/maker/imitator argument Psychology –Painting plays havoc with our senses –Seductive, erotic, magical language used –Epithumetikon vs Logistikon

6 REPUBLIC 10 ( ): On Epic Poetry & Tragedy Epistemology –Homer is no general –No victories recorded –How reliable a source for war??? Psychology –Meter, harmony, music beguiles us –Seductive, erotic, magical language used (cf. painting) –Grief: tragedy, etc. panders to irrational, emotive elements in us

7 REPUBLIC 10 (605c-607): The Greatest Charge It corrupts the best of us (cf. painting) NB its emotive power pleasure in sympathising with sufferings of others People assimilate Homeric tragic characters behaviour to own lives the more you indulge these emotions, the more you encourage them Poets destabilise our psychological order Justice = Psychological order Mimetic poets to be banned (!)

8 SOME RESPONSES Plato assumes depiction = endorsement does not allow for critical distance of poet and audience Achilles presented as problematic figure in first 2 lines of Iliad Plato does not allow for psychological complexity demands simple didactic message how reasonable is this? Plato ignores moments in Homer of heroic restraint of emotion: Achilles and Priam again Plato very selective in critique

9 SOME OTHER ANCIENT VIEWS Poetry a source of pleasure in and of itself: Homer, Hesiod Gorgias the orator and Sophist (c BC) intense emotional power of poetry and artworks not necessarily bad (Encomium of Helen) on cleverness of audience (B23) recognition of artistic fiction tragedy involves deceit, cleverness and justice! Platonic objections turned on their head! Cf. Dissoi Logoi on painting and tragedy

10 SOME OTHER ANCIENT VIEWS Aeschines and Isocrates (orators, active c BC) provide opposite evidence to Plato people do not assimilate tragic emotions in their own lives recognise artistic fictions and emotions Democritus of Abdera (c BC) other peoples sufferings can make us count our blessings and help poet composes very beautifully under inspiration: enthousiasmos Homer has a divine nature & designs a cosmos of all kinds of words

11 SOME OTHER PLATONIC VIEWS Plato expresses different views on art & poetry elsewhere –Phaedrus: Plato admires mania of poet –Apology: invokes Achilles as his model! –Plato is himself a supreme literary artist (and knows it!) –Ion: poetry beautiful and true But poets/rhapsodes irrational Operate under inspiration = ENTHOUSIASMOS –Republic 10: poet = imitator only No inspiration Plato on poetry: Curb Your Enthousiasmos

12 ARISTOTLE Aristotle: Platos greatest student and greatest critic: Poetics defends art and poetry Aristotle Contemplating Homer (Rembrandt, c. 1650)

13 Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii (1784)

14 Pablo Picasso, Guernica (1937)

15 Norman Lindsay ( )

16 Francesco de Goya, 3rd of May 1808

17 Goya, Disasters of War

18 Some Greek writers on art Polyclitus –Sculptor active c BC –Author of Canon –A technical treatise –Philosophical overtones? Empedocles Hippias Gorgias Democritus Apelles Euphranor, et al. –Sources in Pliny –Vitruvius Polyclitus, Doryphorus c. 445 BC

19 Gorgias: An important precursor to Socrates/Plato Sicilian teacher of rhetoric Interest in forms of logos & art –Interest in Homer & tragedy –Tragedy as form of deceit: apatê On tragedy: B23: the deceiver is more just than the non-deceiver, and the deceived is cleverer than the non-deceived –Cf. Simonides: Thessalians too stupid to be deceived by him. –Cf. Dissoi Logoi (3.10)...in painting and tragedy the one who deceives the most by making things most like real things, this man is best. Gorgias of Leontini, c BC

20 Gorgias on Logos, Emotion & Reality Encomium of Helen –Power of rhetoric/peitho –Seductive, deceptive –Gorgias uses her story to speculate on psychology, epistemology, rhetoric, etc. On Not Being –Nothing exists –Even if it did, Nothing is knowable –Even if it were, Logos conveys Nothing, so we cant talk about it Defence of Palamedes –Innocent man defending self –Rational attempt at persuasion –Ostensibly convincing but fails… Peitho as Erotic Personification

21 Gorgias Encomium of Helen Ostensibly tries to exculpate Helen from blame for Trojan War Presents her as victim –Of the gods will –Of desire (erôs) induced by sight and artworks erôs : also a god –Of Paris violence (bia) –Of Logos: persuasive emotive power of words in all forms Poetry, rhetoric, law court speeches, scientific arguments All forms of logos/peitho are false and deceptive –Exploit/manipulate doxa Gorgias of Leontini, c BC

22 Gorgias Encomium of Helen 8-9: Logos is great ruler that, with the smallest and least conspicuous body brings about the most divine deeds. For it can stop fear and take away grief and generate joy and increase pity. … I deem and name all poetry as logos that has meter; ultra fearful shuddering and very tearful pity and grief-loving longing come upon its hearers, and as a result of the good fortunes and bad fortunes of of other peoples actions and bodies, the soul, through the agency of words, suffers its own private suffering. Gorgias of Leontini, c BC

23 Gorgias Encomium of Helen 10: … For the inspired epodes through words are inducers of pleasure and banishers of grief. For mingling with the opinion of the soul the power of the ode enchants and persuades and changes the soul by witchcraft. And two arts of witchcraft and magic have been invented, which are the mistakes of soul and the deceptions of opinion. Gorgias of Leontini, c BC

24 Gorgias Encomium of Helen 11-12:... To remember the past, to examine the present, or to prophesy the future is not easy; and so most people on most subjects make doxa advisor to their minds. But doxa is perilous and uncertain, and brings those who use it to perilous and uncertain good fortune... For peitho expelled her thought; peitho which has the same dunamis but not the same form as anagke. 14: The power of the logos has the same relation to the ordering of the soul as the ordering of drugs does to the nature of the body. … some (sc. speeches) cause grief, others fear, while others instill courage in their hearers, and some drug and bewitch the soul with some evil persuasion. Gorgias of Leontini, c BC

25 Gorgias: Encomium of Helen 8-14 Psychology of logos –Instills emotions –Applies to poetry and prose –Fear, longing, desire, pity Cf. Aristotle on fear and pity of tragedy (Poetics) Works on soul like magic –Goêteia, Thelxis, Apatê –Witchcraft, beguilement, deceit –Cf. Plato in Rep. 10 on painting & tragedy In Helen 18 powers of visual art and opsis parallel the powers of logos –Inspire the same emotional, psychological responses Helen with Erõs and Paris, c. 350 BC

26 Gorgias: Encomium of Helen 18 But indeed whenever painters perfectly produce one body and form from many colours and bodies, they delight the sight. The making of statues and the production of sculptures provide a sweet sickness for the eyes. Thus, it is natural for the sight to grieve for some things and long for others. And many things produce in many people desire and longing for many actions and bodies. Helen with Erõs and Paris, c. 350 BC

27 Homeric Erotic Statues Od : Odysseus embellished by Athena for Nausikaa He is compared to gold and silver statue Athena compared to craftsman Erotic thauma of new appearance –NB Nausikaas response Odysseus before his makeover

28 Homeric Erotic Statues Penelope embellished by Athena (Od ff) Compared to carved ivory Effect on suitors –Thelxis –Thauma –Desire Mycenaean ivory female figures

29 Anavysos Kouros, c. 530 BC accompanied by inscription in hexameter (Homeric) verse Stay by the grave of Kroisos the dead man and pity him whom once in the forefront of battle raging Ares destroyed. emotive response required Homeric/heroic connotations cf. Thersites as opposite erotic; cf. Tyrtaeus

30 New York Kouros; Cleobis & Biton

31 Anavysos Kouros, c. 530 BC

32 Kritian Boy, c

33 Dexileos Monument, c. 390 Inscription: Dexileos, son of Lysanias from Thorikos, born under the archonship of Teisandros [=414/13 BC], died under the archonship of Euboulides at Corinth as one of five cavalrymen.

34 Pandora: as Erotic Statue Theogony –Pandora as model made by Hephaistos –Wears talismanic crown –Thaumasia objects on it –Composite figure with gift from Athena –Erotic and deceptive qualities –Irresistible guile –Thauma grips even gods when looking at her –Kalon kakon Pandora/Anesidora

35 Pandora: as Erotic Statue Creation of Pandora; Attic Rf calyx krater, c. 460 BC

36

37 Phrasikleia, c. 540 & Peplos Kore, c. 525 Inscription: Grave marker of Phrasikleia. I will always be called maiden (Kore), having obtained that name instead of marriage. Cf. Homeric hymn to Demeter Persephone as Kore

38 Berlin Kore, c. 580

39 Hegeso Monument, c. 400 BC

40 Ilissos Monument, c. 360 BC

41 White-ground lekythos, c. 440

42 Exekias, Suicide of Ajax, c. 530

43 Sacrifice of Iphigeneia, Pompeii, c. 100 BC In Aeschylus Agamemnon, Iphigeneia is compared to a painting Strikes her killers with an arrows of pity from her eyes Cf. Timanthes painting and grades of pity on characters

44 Zeus & Ganymede, c. 480

45 Nike of Paionios, c. 420 BC

46 Temple of Athena Nike, c. 410

47 Classical Athens: Art, Eros & Power Theatre of Dionysos Acropolis, Athens Cf. Pericles: Look on her power and become a lover of the city. (Thucydides)

48 Classical Athens: Art, Eros & Power Cf. Pericles: Look on her power and become a lover of the city. (Thucydides) Acropolis, Athens

49 Myron, Discobolos, (orig.c. 460) Lucian (2nd century AD): Lover of Lies Discussion of statue as combination of different poses Sequence of movements Not actual appearance, but conveys kinetic energy A form of artistic deceit? Apatê? Roman copy

50 Cf. Other Media Lucian (2nd century AD) Lover of Lies Discussion of statue as combination of different poses Sequence of movements Not actual appearance, but conveys kinetic energy A form of artistic deceit? Apatê? Panathenaic amphora, c. 530 BC

51 Artemision god, Zeus (?), c. 460

52 Summary: Art as heightened representation Heroising aspects Erotics & desire; pity & longing: pothos deceptive aspects (apatê); a sweet sickness Cultivates specific modes of viewing –A visually persuasive & powerful image –Not just an imitation of an appearance –Gorgianic aesthetics anticipates Aristotle –Cf. Platos reaction in Republic 10! Culture of artistic fiction and emotional engagement with art objects –Anticipates much in Aristotles Poetics

53 ARISTOTLE Aristotle: Platos greatest student and greatest critic: Poetics defends art and poetry Aristotle Contemplating Homer (Rembrandt, c. 1650)


Download ppt "THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GREEK ART. OVERVIEW Alternative views to Plato in Rep. 10 Poets, philosophers, sophists, et al. on art Greek art in context –Art and."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google