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Web Privacy with P3P Lorrie Faith Cranor P3P Specification Working Group Chair AT&T Labs-Research July 2002

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Presentation on theme: "Web Privacy with P3P Lorrie Faith Cranor P3P Specification Working Group Chair AT&T Labs-Research July 2002"— Presentation transcript:

1 Web Privacy with P3P Lorrie Faith Cranor P3P Specification Working Group Chair AT&T Labs-Research July 2002 http://lorrie.cranor.org/

2 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ Part I: The online privacy landscape 2

3 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 3 Part I: The online privacy landscape Web privacy concerns Surveys How do they get my Data? Browser chatter Cookies 101 Online and offline merging Subpoenas Spyware Monitoring devices Solutions Privacy policies Voluntary guidelines Seal programs Chief privacy officers Laws and Regulations Software tools Outline

4 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 4 Web privacy concerns Data is often collected silently Web allows large quantities of data to be collected inexpensively and unobtrusively Data from multiple sources may be merged Non-identifiable information can become identifiable when merged Data collected for business purposes may be used in civil and criminal proceedings Users given no meaningful choice Few sites offer alternatives The Online Privacy Landscape: Privacy concerns

5 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 5 Privacy surveys find concerns Increasingly people say they are concerned about online privacy (80-90% of US Net users) Improved privacy protection is factor most likely to persuade non-Net users to go online 27% of US Net users have abandoned online shopping carts due to privacy concerns 64% of US Net users decided not to use a web site or make an online purchase due to privacy concerns 34% of US Net users who do not buy online would buy online if they didnt have privacy concerns The Online Privacy Landscape: Privacy concerns

6 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 6 Beyond concern April 1999 Study: Beyond Concern: Understanding Net Users' Attitudes About Online Privacy by Cranor, Ackerman and Reagle (US panel results reported) http://www.research.att.com/projects/ privacystudy/ Internet users more likely to provide info when they are not identified Some types of data more sensitive than others Many factors important in decisions about information disclosure Acceptance of persistent identifiers varies according to purpose Internet users dislike automatic data transfer The Online Privacy Landscape: Privacy concerns

7 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 7 Few read privacy policies 3% review online privacy policies carefully most of the time Most likely to review policy before providing credit card info Policies too time consuming to read and difficult to understand 70% would prefer standard privacy policy format Most interested in knowing about data sharing and how to get off marketing lists People are more comfortable at sites that have privacy policies, even if they dont read them The Online Privacy Landscape: Privacy concerns

8 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 8 Survey references Mark S. Ackerman, Lorrie Faith Cranor and Joseph Reagle, Beyond Concern: Understanding Net Users Attitudes About Online Privacy, (AT&T Labs, April 1999), http://www.research.att.com/projects/privacystudy/ Mary J. Culnan and George R. Milne, The Culnan-Milne Survey on Consumers & Online Privacy Notices: Summary of Responses, (December 2001), http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/workshops/glb/supporting/culnan-milne.pdf. Cyber Dialogue, Cyber Dialogue Survey Data Reveals Lost Revenue for Retailers Due to Widespread Consumer Privacy Concerns, (Cyber Dialogue, November 7, 2001), http://www.cyberdialogue.com/news/releases/2001/11-07-uco-retail.html. Forrester Research, Privacy Issues Inhibit Online Spending, (Forrester, October 3, 2001). Louis Harris & Associates and Alan F. Westin, Commerce, Communication and Privacy Online (Louis Harris & Associates, 1997), http://www.privacyexchange.org/iss/surveys/computersurvey97.html Louis Harris & Associates and Alan F. Westin. E-Commerce and Privacy, What Net Users Want, (Sponsored by Price Waterhouse and Privacy & American Business. P & AB, June 1998). http://www.privacyexchange.org/iss/surveys/ecommsum.html Opinion Research Corporation and Alan F. Westin. Freebies and Privacy: What Net Users Think. Sponsored by Privacy & American Business. P & AB, July 1999. http://www.privacyexchange.org/iss/surveys/sr990714.html Privacy Leadership Initiative, Privacy Notices Research Final Results, (Conducted by Harris Interactive, December 2001), http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/workshops/glb/supporting/harris%20results.pdf An extensive list of privacy surveys from around the world is available from http://www.privacyexchange.org/iss/surveys/surveys.html. The Online Privacy Landscape: Privacy concerns

9 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 9 Browser Chatter Browsers chatter about IP address, domain name, organization, Referring page Platform: O/S, browser What information is requested URLs and search terms Cookies To anyone who might be listening End servers System administrators Internet Service Providers Other third parties Advertising networks Anyone who might subpoena log files later The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

10 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 10 Typical HTTP request with cookie GET /retail/searchresults.asp?qu=beer HTTP/1.0 Referer: http://www.us.buy.com/default.asp User-Agent: Mozilla/4.75 [en] (X11; U; NetBSD 1.5_ALPHA i386) Host: www.us.buy.com Accept: image/gif, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, */* Accept-Language: en Cookie: buycountry=us; dcLocName=Basket; dcCatID=6773; dcLocID=6773; dcAd=buybasket; loc=; parentLocName=Basket; parentLoc=6773; ShopperManager%2F=ShopperManager%2F=66FUQ ULL0QBT8MMTVSC5MMNKBJFWDVH7; Store=107; Category=0 The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

11 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 11 Referer log problems GET methods result in values in URL These URLs are sent in the referer header to next host Example: http://www.merchant.com/cgi_bin/o rder?name=Tom+Jones&address=her e+there&credit+card=23487692323 4&PIN=1234&->index.html The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

12 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 12 Cookies 101 Cookies can be useful Used like a staple to attach multiple parts of a form together Used to identify you when you return to a web site so you dont have to remember a password Used to help web sites understand how people use them Cookies can do unexpected things Used to profile users and track their activities, especially across web sites The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

13 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 13 How cookies work – the basics A cookie stores a small string of characters A web site asks your browser to set a cookie Whenever you return to that site your browser sends the cookie back automatically browsersite Please store cookie xyzzy First visit to site browsersite Here is cookie xyzzy Later visits The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

14 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 14 How cookies work – advanced Cookies are only sent back to the site that set them – but this may be any host in domain Sites setting cookies indicate path, domain, and expiration for cookies Cookies can store user info or a database key that is used to look up user info – either way the cookie enables info to be linked to the current browsing session Database Users … Email … Visits … Send me with any request to x.com until 2008 Send me with requests for index.html on y.x.com for this session only User=Joe Email= Joe@ x.com Visits=13 User=457 6904309 The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

15 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 15 Cookie terminology Cookie Replay – sending a cookie back to a site Session cookie – cookie replayed only during current browsing session Persistent cookie – cookie replayed until expiration date First-party cookie – cookie associated with the site the user requested Third-party cookie – cookie associated with an image, ad, frame, or other content from a site with a different domain name that is embedded in the site the user requested Browser interprets third-party cookie based on domain name, even if both domains are owned by the same company The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

16 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 16 Web bugs Invisible images (1-by-1 pixels, transparent) embedded in web pages and cause referer info and cookies to be transferred Also called web beacons, clear gifs, tracker gifs,etc. Work just like banner ads from ad networks, but you cant see them unless you look at the code behind a web page Also embedded in HTML formatted email messages, MS Word documents, etc. For more info on web bugs see: http://www.privacyfoundation.org/resources /webbug.asp For software to detect web bugs see: http://www.bugnosis.org The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

17 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 17 How data can be linked Every time the same cookie is replayed to a site, the site may add information to the record associated with that cookie Number of times you visit a link, time, date What page you visit What page you visited last Information you type into a web form If multiple cookies are replayed together, they are usually logged together, effectively linking their data Narrow scoped cookie might get logged with broad scoped cookie The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

18 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 18 Ad networks Ad company can get your name and address from CD order and link them to your search Ad search for medical information set cookie buy CD replay cookie Search ServiceCD Store The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

19 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 19 What ad networks may know… Personal data: Email address Full name Mailing address (street, city, state, and Zip code) Phone number Transactional data: Details of plane trips Search phrases used at search engines Health conditions The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data? It was not necessary for me to click on the banner ads for information to be sent to DoubleClick servers. – Richard M. Smith

20 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 20 Online and offline merging In November 1999, DoubleClick purchased Abacus Direct, a company possessing detailed consumer profiles on more than 90% of US households. In mid-February 2000 DoubleClick announced plans to merge anonymous online data with personal information obtained from offline databases By the first week in March 2000 the plans were put on hold Stock dropped from $125 (12/99) to $80 (03/00) The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

21 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 21 Offline data goes online… The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data? The Cranor familys 25 most frequent grocery purchases (sorted by nutritional value)!

22 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 22 Subpoenas Data on online activities is increasingly of interest in civil and criminal cases The only way to avoid subpoenas is to not have data In the US, your files on your computer in your home have much greater legal protection that your files stored on a server on the network The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

23 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 23 Spyware Spyware: Software that employs a user's Internet connection, without their knowledge or explicit permission, to collect information Most products use pseudonymous, but unique ID Over 800 known freeware and shareware products contain Spyware, for example: Beeline Search Utility GoZilla Download Manager Comet Cursor Often difficult to uninstall! Anti-Spyware Sites: http://grc.com/oo/spyware.htm http://www.adcop.org/smallfish http://www.spychecker.com http://cexx.org/adware.htm The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

24 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 24 Devices that monitor you Creative Labs Nomad JukeBox Music transfer software reports all uploads to Creative Labs. http://www.nomadworld.com Sportbrain Monitors daily workout. Custom phone cradle uploads data to company Web site for analysis. http://www.sportbrain.com/ Sony eMarker Lets you figure out the artitst and title of songs you hear on the radio. And keeps a personal log of all the music you like on the emarker Web site. http://www.emarker.com :CueCat Keeps personal log of advertisements youre interested in. http://www.crq.com/cuecat.html See http://www.privacyfoundation.org/ The Online Privacy Landscape: How do they get my data?

25 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 25 Some solutions Privacy policies Voluntary guidelines and codes of conduct Seal programs Chief privacy officers Laws and regulations Software tools The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

26 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 26 Privacy policies Policies let consumers know about sites privacy practices Consumers can then decide whether or not practices are acceptable, when to opt-in or opt-out, and who to do business with The presence or privacy policies increases consumer trust The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

27 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 27 Privacy policy problems BUT policies are often difficult to understand hard to find take a long time to read change without notice The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

28 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 28 Voluntary guidelines Online Privacy Alliance http://www.privacyalliance.org Direct Marketing Association Privacy Promise http://www.thedma.org/library/ privacy/privacypromise.shtml Network Advertising Initiative Principles http://www.networkadvertising.org/ The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

29 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 29 OECD fair information principles http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/it/secur/ prod/PRIV-en.HTM Collection limitation Data quality Purpose specification Use limitation Security safeguards Openness Individual participation Accountability The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

30 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 30 Simplified principles Notice and disclosure Choice and consent Data security Data quality and access Recourse and remedies US Federal Trade Commission, Privacy Online: A Report to Congress (June 1998), http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/ The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

31 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 31 Seal programs TRUSTe – http://www.truste.org BBBOnline – http://www.bbbonline.org CPA WebTrust – http://www.cpawebtrust.org/ Japanese Privacy Mark http://www.jipdec.or.jp/security/ privacy/ The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

32 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 32 Seal program problems Certify only compliance with stated policy Limited ability to detect non-compliance Minimal privacy requirements Dont address privacy issues that go beyond the web site Nonetheless, reporting requirements are forcing licensees to review their own policies and practices and think carefully before introducing policy changes The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

33 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 33 The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

34 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 34 Chief privacy officers Companies are increasingly appointing CPOs to have a central point of contact for privacy concerns Role of CPO varies in each company Draft privacy policy Respond to customer concerns Educate employees about company privacy policy Review new products and services for compliance with privacy policy Develop new initiatives to keep company out front on privacy issue Monitor pending privacy legislation The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

35 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 35 Laws and regulations Privacy laws and regulations vary widely throughout the world US has mostly sector-specific laws, with relatively minimal protections Federal Trade Commission has jurisdiction over fraud and deceptive practices Federal Communications Commission regulates telecommunications European Data Protection Directive requires all European Union countries to adopt similar comprehensive privacy laws Privacy commissions in each country (some countries have national and state commissions) Many European companies non-compliant with privacy laws (2002 study found majority of UK web sites non-compliant) The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

36 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 36 Some US privacy laws Bank Secrecy Act, 1970 Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1971 Privacy Act, 1974 Right to Financial Privacy Act, 1978 Cable TV Privacy Act, 1984 Video Privacy Protection Act, 1988 Family Educational Right to Privacy Act, 1993 Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 1994 Freedom of Information Act, 1966, 1991, 1996 The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

37 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 37 US law – recent additions HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996) When implemented, will protect medical records and other individually identifiable health information COPPA (Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act, 1998) Web sites that target children must obtain parental consent before collecting personal information from children under the age of 13 GLB (Gramm-Leach-Bliley-Act, 1999) Requires privacy policy disclosure and opt-out mechanisms from financial service institutions The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

38 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 38 Safe harbor Membership US companies self-certify adherance to requirements Dept. of Commerce maintains signatory list http://www.export.gov/safeharbor/ Signatories must provide notice of data collected, purposes, and recipients choice of opt-out of 3rd-party transfers, opt-in for sensitive data access rights to delete or edit inaccurate information security for storage of collected data enforcement mechanisms for individual complaints Approved July 26, 2000 by EU reserves right to renegotiate if remedies for EU citizens prove to be inadequate The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

39 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 39 Implications of Directive for web sites European Union Data Directive prohibits secondary uses of data without informed consent Creating personally-identifiable online profiles will have to be opt-in in most cases Upfront notice must be given when data is collected – no web bugs No transfer of data to non-EU countries unless there is adequate privacy protection The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

40 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 40 Data protection agencies Australia: http://www.privacy.gov.au/ Canada: http://www.privcom.gc.ca/ France: http://www.cnil.fr/ Germany: http://www.bfd.bund.de/ Hong Kong: http://www.pco.org.hk/ Italy: http://www.privacy.it/ Spain: http://www.ag-protecciondatos.es/ Switzerland: http://www.edsb.ch/ UK: http://www.dataprotection.gov.uk/ … And many more The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

41 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 41 Software tools Encryption tools – prevent others from listening in on your communications File encryption Email encryption Encrypted network connections Anonymity and pseudonymity tools – prevent your actions from being linked to you Anonymizing proxies Mix Networks and similar web anonymity tools Anonymous email Information and transparency tools – make informed choices about how your information will be used Identity management tools P3P Filters Cookie cutters Child protection software Other tools Computer cleaners Privacy suites Personal firewalls The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

42 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 42 The Anonymizer Acts as a proxy for users Hides information from end servers Sees all web traffic Adds ads to pages (free service; subscription service also available) http://www.anonymizer.com Anonymizer Request Reply ClientServer The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

43 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 43 B,kAkA CkBkB Mixes [Chaum81] Sender routes message randomly through network of Mixes, using layered public-key encryption. Mix A dest,msg kCkC CkBkB kCkC kCkC SenderDestination msg Mix C k X = encrypted with public key of Mix X Mix B The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

44 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 44 Crowds Users join a Crowd of other users Web requests from the crowd cannot be linked to any individual Protection from end servers other crowd members system administrators eavesdroppers First system to hide data shadow on the web without trusting a central authority http://www.research.att.com/projects/crowds/ The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

45 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 45 Anonymous email Anonymous remailers allow people to send email anonymously Similar to anonymous web proxies Some can be chained and work like mixes http://anon.efga.org/~rlist The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

46 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 46 Filters Cookie Cutters Block cookies, allow for more fine-grained cookie control, etc. Some also filter ads, referer header, and browser chatter http://www.junkbusters.com/ht/en/ links.html#measures Child Protection Software Block the transmission of certain information via email, chat rooms, or web forms when child is using computer Limit who a child can email or chat with http://www.getnetwise.org/ The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

47 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 47 Regulatory and self-regulatory framework ServiceUser The Internet Secure channel P3P user agent Cookie cutter Anonymizing agent Privacy tools The Online Privacy Landscape: Solutions

48 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 48 Privacy web sites http://www.aclu.org/ http://www.cdt.org/ http://www.cpsr.org/ http://www.consumerprivacygui de.org/ http://www.eff.org/ http://www.epic.org/ http://www.healthprivacy.org/ http://www.junkbusters.com/ http://www.privacyalliance.org/ http://www.pandab.org/ http://www.privacyexchange. org/ http://www.vortex.com/privacy. html http://www.privacyfoundation.org/ http://www.privacy.org/pi/ http://www.privacyjournal.net/ http://www.understandingprivacy. org/ http://www.privacy.org/ http://www.privacyplace.com/ http://www.privacyrights.org/ http://www.privacytimes.com/ http://www.anu.edu.au/people/ Roger.Clarke/DV/index.html http://headlines.yahoo.com/ Full_Coverage/Tech/Internet_ Privacy/ The Online Privacy Landscape

49 Lorrie Faith Cranor http://lorrie.cranor.org/ 49 Books Web Privacy with P3P by Lorrie Faith Cranor Database Nation by Simson Garfinkel The Privacy Law Sourcebook 2001: United States Law, International Law, and Recent Developments by Marc Rotenberg The Online Privacy Landscape


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