Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved.

3 Commas Until You Cry !

4 Blah blah blah [pause =, ] blah blah blah [pause =, ] blah blah blah... Blah blah blah [pause =, ] blah blah blah [pause =, ] blah blah blah... No handbook says to use commas where you pause while speaking! X

5 Dont hook your readers eyes with unnecessary commas. When in doubt, leave them out! O u c h ! O u c h !

6 As carefully as architects plan skyscrapers, you must create successful sentences by learning when and where to place commas.

7 Each sentence part that follows will – depending on its location – connect with a comma. Each sentence part that follows will – depending on its location – connect with a comma.

8 Prepositional Phrase Begins with a preposition, a word that shows location in place or in time. Click here for a complete list. Begins with a preposition, a word that shows location in place or in time. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Might include optional description. Might include optional description. Ends with a noun. Ends with a noun.

9 That tasty poodle went over my tongue, down my throat, and into my stomach! That tasty poodle went over my tongue, down my throat, and into my stomach! Read these examples:

10 Participle Phrase Begins with a present or past participle. Begins with a present or past participle. A present participle always ends in ing. A present participle always ends in ing. A past participle frequently ends in ed. A past participle frequently ends in ed. An irregular past participle takes a variety of forms. Click here for a complete list. An irregular past participle takes a variety of forms. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Might include modifier ( s ) to finish the thought. Might include modifier ( s ) to finish the thought.

11 Read these examples: Ground like hamburger, boiling in swamp water, seasoned with garlic, the tasty poodle simmered in a pot! Ground like hamburger, boiling in swamp water, seasoned with garlic, the tasty poodle simmered in a pot!

12 Infinitive Phrase Begins with an infinitive [ to + verb ]. Begins with an infinitive [ to + verb ]. Might include modifier(s) to finish the thought. Might include modifier(s) to finish the thought. Here are two examples: Here are two examples: To eat another tasty poodle or to be satisfied with just that one... To eat another tasty poodle or to be satisfied with just that one...

13 AppositiveAppositive An appositive is a noun phrase that renames another noun. An appositive is a noun phrase that renames another noun. An appositive comes either right before or right after the noun it describes. An appositive comes either right before or right after the noun it describes. Check out this example: Check out this example: The poodle, a yapping fur ball, was not as tasty as the human foot I snagged last week. The poodle, a yapping fur ball, was not as tasty as the human foot I snagged last week.

14 Noun of Direct Address A noun of direct address is a name A noun of direct address is a name It indicates who is receiving the information. It indicates who is receiving the information. Removing the noun of direct address will not change the meaning of the sentence. Removing the noun of direct address will not change the meaning of the sentence. Examples: Marvin, Mr. Trump, Dad, Sweetheart Examples: Marvin, Mr. Trump, Dad, Sweetheart

15 Burp Compare this sentence … I have already eaten Marvin. I have already eaten Marvin. B u r p !B u r p ! B u r p !

16 … to this sentence. No thank you! I have already eaten, Marvin. No thank you! I have already eaten, Marvin.

17 AdverbAdverb Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Many adverbs end in ly ; many others, however, do not. Many adverbs end in ly ; many others, however, do not. In terms of comma placement, worry about those adverbs that act as transitions between sentences or between paragraphs. In terms of comma placement, worry about those adverbs that act as transitions between sentences or between paragraphs.

18 Read these examples: Unfortunately, poodles give me indigestion. Unfortunately, poodles give me indigestion. That fact, however, will not keep me from eating them. That fact, however, will not keep me from eating them.

19 Subordinate Clause Begins with a subordinate conjunction, such as although, because, if, when, while, etc. Begins with a subordinate conjunction, such as although, because, if, when, while, etc. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Click here for a complete list. Includes a subject and a verb. Includes a subject and a verb. Does not, however, express a complete thought. Does not, however, express a complete thought.

20 Read these examples: If you ever fall off a boat... If y ou ever fall off a boat... While I am swimming nearby... While I am swimming nearby...

21 Speaker Tag Introduces a direct quotation. Introduces a direct quotation. Includes a subject and verb. Includes a subject and verb. Check out this example: Check out this example: Then my doctor said, Poodles are bad for your health! Then my doctor said, Poodles are bad for your health!

22 Comma Tip 1 All introductory elements require a comma when they are connected to a main clause that follows. All introductory elements require a comma when they are connected to a main clause that follows. The pattern looks like this: The pattern looks like this: Introductory element +, + main clause.

23 1. Because she is short Francine loves to go food shopping with Rachel, a tall friend. Strolling down the aisles Francine asks Rachel to grab packages of imported crackers and boxes of high-fiber cereal, items that are always too high to reach. 1. Because she is short, Francine loves to go food shopping with Rachel, a tall friend. Strolling down the aisles Francine asks Rachel to grab packages of imported crackers and boxes of high-fiber cereal, items that are always too high to reach. 1. Because she is short, Francine loves to go food shopping with Rachel, a tall friend. Strolling down the aisles, Francine asks Rachel to grab packages of imported crackers and boxes of high-fiber cereal, items that are always too high to reach.

24 2. On top of the computer monitor in the bedroom a collection of stuffed unicorns supervises the work Lori completes at the keyboard below. 2. On top of the computer monitor in the bedroom, a collection of stuffed unicorns supervises the work Lori completes at the keyboard below.

25 3. Akram has a problem hitting the snooze button on his alarm over and over. To get to his first class on time Akram frequently eats a donut in the car, getting crumbs all over the seat of his new vehicle. 3. Akram has a problem hitting the snooze button on his alarm over and over. To get to his first class on time, Akram frequently eats a donut in the car, getting crumbs all over the seat of his new vehicle.

26 4. Pablo walked all the way across campus before he noticed the lightness of his book bag. Suddenly he realized that his heavy chemistry text was on the backseat of his car. 4. Pablo walked all the way across campus before he noticed the lightness of his book bag. Suddenly, he realized that his heavy chemistry text was on the backseat of his car.

27 5. In English class no one wants to sit next to Eli because he is always smacking his gum loudly. Moreover he nervously swings his leg, kicking people in the thighs, shins, and ankles. 5. In English class, no one wants to sit next to Eli because he is always smacking his gum loudly. Moreover he nervously swings his leg, kicking people in the thighs, shins, and ankles. 5. In English class, no one wants to sit next to Eli because he is always smacking his gum loudly. Moreover, he nervously swings his leg, kicking people in the thighs, shins, and ankles.

28 Only one more sentence part to learn! Only one more sentence part to learn!

29 Nonessential Clause Begins with who, whoever, whom, whomever, where, wherever, which, or whichever. Begins with who, whoever, whom, whomever, where, wherever, which, or whichever. Contains a subject and a verb. Contains a subject and a verb. Check out this example: Check out this example: I can still eat poodle dinners, which I really enjoy, in moderation. I can still eat poodle dinners, which I really enjoy, in moderation.

30 Comma Tip 2 First part of the sentence +, + interrupterinterrupter rest of the sentence. +, + All interrupters require a comma in front and behind when they break the flow of a complete sentence. All interrupters require a comma in front and behind when they break the flow of a complete sentence. The pattern looks like this: The pattern looks like this:

31 1.George used War and Peace a heavy, thick, intimidating book to smash the cockroaches he found crawling on the walls of his college dorm room. 1.George used War and Peace, a heavy, thick, intimidating book to smash the cockroaches he found crawling on the walls of his college dorm room. 1.George used War and Peace, a heavy, thick, intimidating book, to smash the cockroaches he found crawling on the walls of his college dorm room.

32 2. Take this soup bone Joe and give it to the puppy before he starts chewing on our shoes. 2. Take this soup bone, Joe and give it to the puppy before he starts chewing on our shoes. 2. Take this soup bone, Joe, and give it to the puppy before he starts chewing on our shoes.

33 3. When you get hungry my mother announced I want you to try a bowl of this squid eyeball stew. 3. When you get hungry, my mother announced I want you to try a bowl of this squid eyeball stew. 3. When you get hungry, my mother announced, I want you to try a bowl of this squid eyeball stew.

34 4. Prof. Finklestein who assigns more papers than he has time to grade keeps student essays half a semester before returning them. 4. Prof. Finklestein, who assigns more papers than he has time to grade keeps student essays half a semester before returning them. 4. Prof. Finklestein, who assigns more papers than he has time to grade, keeps student essays half a semester before returning them.

35 5. January the month Julie usually dreads because of its cold, dark mornings was unusually warm this past year. 5. January, the month Julie usually dreads because of its cold, dark mornings was unusually warm this past year. 5. January, the month Julie usually dreads because of its cold, dark mornings, was unusually warm this past year.

36 Comma Tip 3 Main clause +, + concluding element. All concluding elements require a comma when they are connected at the end of a main clause. All concluding elements require a comma when they are connected at the end of a main clause. The pattern looks like this: The pattern looks like this:

37 1.Jennifer tolerated the family reunion slapping mosquitoes with a paper plate and drinking iced tea to combat the heat. 1.Jennifer tolerated the family reunion, slapping mosquitoes with a paper plate and drinking iced tea to combat the heat.

38 2.In a panic, Tony searched the interior of his car. He hoped to find his biology lab work under the front seat or among the clutter in the trunk. No concluding element = no comma!

39 3. At Titos Taco Palace, James tried to keep pace with Theodore who can eat a burrito in thirty seconds flat. 3. At Titos Taco Palace, James tried to keep pace with Theodore, who can eat a burrito in thirty seconds flat.

40 4.Dont bother to ask Mom warned Sue. She never extends curfew especially if you tell her that you will be out with a guy. 4.Dont bother to ask Mom, warned Sue. She never extends curfew especially if you tell her that you will be out with a guy. 4.Dont bother to ask Mom, warned Sue. She never extends curfew, especially if you tell her that you will be out with a guy.

41 5.At the West Oaks Mall food court, Aisha winked at Rodney a cute young man in a tight T- shirt. 5.At the West Oaks Mall food court, Aisha winked at Rodney, a cute young man in a tight T- shirt.

42 Comma Tip 4 Complete sentence Complete sentence +, +and complete sentence. itemitem + Ø+ and and + itemitem itemitemitemitemitemitem +,+ ++,+ Follow these rules when you use commas with and.

43 1.Tony wanted to order a pizza from the Pizza Hutch and some shrimp fried rice from Wei-Wei's Cantonese Kitchen. item + and + item = no comma!

44 2.Debbie rushed to get the report typed and Martha frantically answered the phones. 2.Debbie rushed to get the report typed, and Martha frantically answered the phones.

45 3.I don't know when to leave my credit card at home and when to say no to a cheeseburger with fries. item + and + item = no comma!

46 4.When Mike took his truck to the dealership, the mechanics wanted to put in a new starter, replace his shocks and overhaul the transmission. 4.When Mike took his truck to the dealership, the mechanics wanted to put in a new starter, replace his shocks, and overhaul the transmission.

47 5.Because George snores to wake the dead and because Fuzzball, the dog, barks at the slightest sound, Alice never gets a good night's sleep. item + and + item = no comma!

48 Comma Tip 5 The student + ø+ essential clause + ø+ ran to his class. RobertRobert +,+ nonessential clause +,+ ran to his class. Follow these rules when you use commas with nonessential clauses.

49 1.People who know their grammar rules shouldn't always correct those of us who don't. Essential clause = no commas!

50 2.My brother James who cannot please Dad has decided to move to Michigan. 2.My brother James, who cannot please Dad has decided to move to Michigan. 2.My brother James, who cannot please Dad, has decided to move to Michigan.

51 3.The basketball players whom I admire the most play for teams other than the Orlando Magic. Essential clause = no commas!

52 4.The movie Aliens which I have seen twenty-seven times contains too much violence for my nephews to watch. 4.The movie Aliens, which I have seen twenty-seven times contains too much violence for my nephews to watch. 4.The movie Aliens, which I have seen twenty-seven times, contains too much violence for my nephews to watch.

53 5. We watched a crazy kid on a skateboard weave through the heavy traffic on Orange Avenue. The kid who had no fear of death or litigation leaped a curb and crashed into a lawyer walking along the sidewalk. 5. We watched a crazy kid on a skateboard weave through the heavy traffic on Orange Avenue. The kid, who had no fear of death or litigation leaped a curb and crashed into a lawyer walking along the sidewalk. 5. We watched a crazy kid on a skateboard weave through the heavy traffic on Orange Avenue. The kid, who had no fear of death or litigation, leaped a curb and crashed into a lawyer walking along the sidewalk.

54 Comma Tip 6 coordinate adjective +,+ noncoordinate adjective + ø+ Follow these rules when you use commas with a series of adjectives.

55 1.Two cluttered computer tables and an unmade sagging bed fill Antonios small bedroom. 1.Two cluttered computer tables and an unmade, sagging bed fill Antonios small bedroom.

56 2.The cute soft frisky ferret will bite your fingers if you try to pick him up. 2.The cute, soft frisky ferret will bite your fingers if you try to pick him up. 2.The cute, soft, frisky ferret will bite your fingers if you try to pick him up.

57 3.Michael's faded ragged New York Jets jacket was an inappropriate choice of clothing for his second interview at the bank. 3.Michael's faded, ragged New York Jets jacket was an inappropriate choice of clothing for his second interview at the bank.

58 4.The hot spicy appetizing bowl of squid eyeball stew steamed on the clean shiny kitchen counter. 4.The hot, spicy appetizing bowl of squid eyeball stew steamed on the clean shiny kitchen counter. 4.The hot, spicy, appetizing bowl of squid eyeball stew steamed on the clean shiny kitchen counter. 4.The hot, spicy, appetizing bowl of squid eyeball stew steamed on the clean, shiny kitchen counter.

59 5.A strange smell emanated from Barbara's blue disorganized book bag, which lay on the floor beside her desk. 5.A strange smell emanated from Barbara's blue, disorganized book bag, which lay on the floor beside her desk.

60 Comma Tip 7 Complete sentence +,+ so so + complete sentence. Complete sentence + ø+ so that that + subordinate clause. Follow these rules with so and so that or so [ that implied].

61 1.Robbie bought a small microwave for his first apartment so he could cook popcorn and macaroni and cheese, the only meals he could afford. Implied that after so = no comma!

62 2.Sylvia wore flat shoes on her date with Tony so she wouldnt intimidate this short young man with her height. Implied that after so = no comma!

63 3.Yuko bought a small aquarium and some goldfish so her apartment wouldnt feel so lonely. Implied that after so = no comma!

64 4.Patrick always carries an English handbook with him, even to basketball games so that he can check other peoples grammar wherever he goes. 4.Patrick always carries an English handbook with him, even to basketball games, so that he can check other peoples grammar wherever he goes. The comma is for the interrupter, not the so that.

65 5.Rachel neglected to make her car payment three months in a row so she must hide her car in friends garages in an attempt to foil the repo man. 5.Rachel neglected to make her car payment three months in a row, so she must hide her car in friends garages in an attempt to foil the repo man.

66 The END. The END.


Download ppt "This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved. This PowerPoint is ©2013 by Robin L. Simmons. All Rights Reserved."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google