Presentation on theme: "The History of the U.S. - Through its Constitutional Amendments."— Presentation transcript:
1The History of the U.S. -Through itsConstitutionalAmendments
2Article V of the Constitution provides for making changes, or amendments to the document.Article V. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
3And almost before it began, the first ten amendments were added - a "Bill of Rights" insisted upon bymany of the states before they wouldratify.
4Several of the amendments in the Bill of Rights were a reflection of the recent experience of the colonists who had been denied a voice when various acts and laws were passed by Britain.
5Several of the amendments in the Bill of Rights were a reflection of the recent experience of the colonists who had been denied a voice when various acts and laws were passed by Britain.For example:#3 was a reaction to the QuarteringAct enacted by the British#4 came as a result of the “generalsearches” done by the British in hopesof finding evidence of crimes so theycould press criminal charges#5 & #6 specified rights not extendedto colonists during British rule, someof whom were charged and taken toBritain for trial, extending time and notproviding for due process
6Originally, the procedure in Presidential election was to award the presidency tothe highest vote-getter and the vice-presidency to the second highest. Thisdid not work well in the election of 1796,where opposing candidates from differentpolitical parties became the President(John Adams) and Vice-President(Thomas Jefferson).Amendment XII required the electors toCast separate votes for President andVice-President.
7Amendments XIII, XIV, and XV are known as the Civil War Amendments Amendment XVGuaranteed theright to vote to allUS citizens regardlessof race, color, orpast service as a slaveAmendment XIIIAbolished slaveryThroughout theUnited StatesAmendment XIVDefined citizenship, giving African-Americansequal rights and guaranteeing those rights.This overturned the controversial Dred ScottDecision of 1856, and made “Black Codes” illegal.
8Amendment XVIII – Prohibition In response to the nationalpressure of the temperancemovement.
9Amendment XVIII – Prohibition In response to the nationalpressure of the temperancemovement.But by 1933, the country had enoughof bootlegging, rum running, moon-shine, speakeasies – and the GreatDepression – and Prohibition wasrepealed with Amendment XXI.
10Only 144 years after declaring Independence, women received The Suffragette Movementfinally got the attention oflawmakers as they ratifiedAmendment XIX in 1920.Only 144 years after declaringIndependence, women receivedThe right to vote!
11Amendment XXII – Limited the President to 2 terms (or 10 Years). Passed after Franklin Roosevelt had served 3 fullterms and had begun a 4th.Amendment XXIV – Outlawed poll taxes in federal electionsTaxes required for voting clearly discriminatedagainst the poor, and especially African Americansin the South. The Civil Rights Movement of the1950’s & early 1960’s were clearly an influence.Amendment XXV – Clarified the procedure for fillingVacancies in the office of the President or Vice-President.The timing (1967) coincided with the aftermath of theKennedy assassination and the questions that arose ifthe President were incapacitated or if both the Presidentand Vice-President were to be unable to serve.
12Amendment XXVI – Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. After several years of the Viet NamConflict, and anti-war protests, lawmakers finallytook seriously those who proclaimed, “If theyare old enough to fight and die for their country,they should be old enough to vote!”
13The Constitution has only been amended 27 times in over 200 years. Each time, events of UShistory put the wheels of amendingin motion.