Presentation on theme: "Article V. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application."— Presentation transcript:
Article V. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
Several of the amendments in the Bill of Rights were a reflection of the recent experience of the colonists who had been denied a voice when various acts and laws were passed by Britain.
For example: #3 was a reaction to the Quartering Act enacted by the British #4 came as a result of the general searches done by the British in hopes of finding evidence of crimes so they could press criminal charges #5 & #6 specified rights not extended to colonists during British rule, some of whom were charged and taken to Britain for trial, extending time and not providing for due process
Originally, the procedure in Presidential election was to award the presidency to the highest vote-getter and the vice- presidency to the second highest. This did not work well in the election of 1796, where opposing candidates from different political parties became the President (John Adams) and Vice-President (Thomas Jefferson). Amendment XII required the electors to Cast separate votes for President and Vice-President.
Amendments XIII, XIV, and XV are known as the Civil War Amendments Amendment XIII Abolished slavery Throughout the United States Amendment XIV Defined citizenship, giving African-Americans equal rights and guaranteeing those rights. This overturned the controversial Dred Scott Decision of 1856, and made Black Codes illegal. Amendment XV Guaranteed the right to vote to all US citizens regardless of race, color, or past service as a slave
Amendment XVIII – Prohibition In response to the national pressure of the temperance movement.
Amendment XVIII – Prohibition In response to the national pressure of the temperance movement. But by 1933, the country had enough of bootlegging, rum running, moon- shine, speakeasies – and the Great Depression – and Prohibition was repealed with Amendment XXI.
Only 144 years after declaring Independence, women received The right to vote!
Amendment XXIV – Outlawed poll taxes in federal elections Taxes required for voting clearly discriminated against the poor, and especially African Americans in the South. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s & early 1960s were clearly an influence. Amendment XXII – Limited the President to 2 terms (or 10 Years). Passed after Franklin Roosevelt had served 3 full terms and had begun a 4 th. Amendment XXV – Clarified the procedure for filling Vacancies in the office of the President or Vice-President. The timing (1967) coincided with the aftermath of the Kennedy assassination and the questions that arose if the President were incapacitated or if both the President and Vice-President were to be unable to serve.
Amendment XXVI – Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. After several years of the Viet Nam Conflict, and anti-war protests, lawmakers finally took seriously those who proclaimed, If they are old enough to fight and die for their country, they should be old enough to vote!