Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Hypoglycemia Prevention & Treatment

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Hypoglycemia Prevention & Treatment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hypoglycemia Prevention & Treatment
Gary Scheiner MS, CDE Owner, Integrated Diabetes Services 333 E. Lancaster Ave., Suite 204 Wynnewood, PA 877-SELF-MGT ( ) (610)

2 Hypoglycemia: Definitions
“Mild”: Adrenergic (BG<70) “Moderate”: Cognitive (BG<50) “Severe”: Unconscious (BG ???)

3 Counterregulatory Hormones
Hypoglycemia: Cause Imbalance between factors raising and lowering blood glucose levels  Blood Glucose  Blood Glucose Food Insulin/Oral Meds Counterregulatory Hormones Physical Activity

4 “The Greatest Limiting Factor In Diabetes Management”
Hypoglycemia “The Greatest Limiting Factor In Diabetes Management”

5 The Great Limiting Factor
Performance Impairment

6 The Great Limiting Factor
Accident Risk

7 The Great Limiting Factor
Anxiety / Embarrassment

8 The Great Limiting Factor
Lasting Damage?

9 The Great Limiting Factor
Diminished Symptoms (Hypoglycemic Unawareness)

10 The Great Limiting Factor

11 The Great Limiting Factor
Weight Gain

12 Hypoglycemia: Targets/Goals
Unable to recognize & verbalize lows: >80 Able to recognize & verbalize lows: >70 Pregnancy: >60 <10% of readings below target at each time of day No severe lows

13 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
1. Insulin Program Setup (background/basal)

14 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
1. Insulin Program Setup (background/basal)

15 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
1. Insulin Program Setup (background/basal)

16 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
1. Insulin Program Setup (background/basal)

17 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
1. Insulin Program Setup (background/basal)

18 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
1b. Insulin Program Setup (Meal/Bolus)

19 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
2. Meal/Snack Timing Major issue w/a.m. NPH/Lente Minor issue w/Lantus or Ultralente Not usually an issue with pump use

20 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
3. Proper Correction Doses 1500-Rule (aggressive) 1800-Rule (conservative) (Total Daily Ins.)/1500 or 1800 May vary day vs. night (nighttime often 50% more than day)

21 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
4. Proper Meal/Bolus Doses I:C Ratio that matches pre-meal BG 3-4 hours (not 2!) after eating I:C Ratio often varies from meal to meal (bkfst dose > lunch & dinner)

22 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
5. Account For “Unused” Insulin* Time since meal insulin  1 Hr 2 Hrs 3 Hrs 4 Hrs Conservative Approach 70% left 40% left 10% left 0% left Aggressive Approach 67% left 33% left * Newer pumps figure this automatically based on the insulin duration you set.

23 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
5. Account For “Unused” Insulin Example: Gave 6.0 units at 7pm, BG 200 at 9pm. Conservative approach: 40% remaining (6 x .4) = 2.4 units left Aggressive approach: 33% remaining (6 x .33) = 2 units left Subtract the unused insulin from your usual correction dose!

24 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
6. Carb Counting Accuracy Proper Portion Measurement Look Up Unknown / Restaurant Foods Use Carb Factors Subtract 100% of Fiber Subtract 50% of Sugar Alcohols

25 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
7. Extend Meal Insulin When Necessary Use When: Portions are very large Meal is prolonged Food is low-glycemic index (pasta, legumes, dairy…) Apply Via: Square/Dual/Extended/Combo bolus on pump Delayed or Split bolus on injections

26 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
8. Adjustment for Physical Activity Exercise, recreation, chores: all count! Reduce meal insulin (25%, 33%, 50%) for after-meal activity Snack prior to after/between meal activity Lower long-acting/basal insulin prior to and during prolonged activity

27 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
8. Watch Out for D’OH! (Delayed Onset Hypoglycemia) Following High-Intensity Exercise Following Extended Duration Activity May Occur Up to 24 Hours After Adjustments to food and insulin may be necessary

28 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
9. Adjustment for Alcohol Alcohol reduces the liver’s output of glucose and masks hypoglycemic symptoms Delayed BG drops can occur Decrease basal insulin (or overnight long-acting insulin) after drinking

29 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
10. Consistent Monitoring Before All Meals & Snacks Pre/Post Exercise Bedtime 3 a.m. (occasionally)

30 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
11. Recording & Analysis Record all pertinent data BGs Carb Activity Insulin Use an organized form (multiple days on single page, if possible)


32 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
11. Recording & Analysis Review every 7-10 days Look for patterns > 10% below target given time Lows during/post-activity Lows on School/Work vs. off-day Lows Post-Menstrual

33 Hypoglycemia Prevention Strategies
12. Caffeine Helps reduce risk of nighttime hypoglycemia, but not daytime Benefit seen with 4 cups of coffee per day (250 mg caffeine twice daily) WILL YOU SLEEP???

34 Hypoglycemia Treatment
Mild/Moderate Low Check BG First Treat w/High-Glycemic Index Food Treat w/Proper Amount Re-Check in 15 Minutes High-GI Foods Glucose Tablets Dry Cereal Pretzels Graham Crackers Vanilla Wafers Jelly Beans

35 Hypoglycemia Treatment
Use of Glycemic Index Lower GI foods digest & convert to glucose more slowly High-fiber slower than low Hi-fat slower than low Solids slower than liquids Cold foods slower than hot Type of sugar/starch affects GI

36 Hypoglycemia Treatment
Use of Glycemic Index (contd)

37 Hypoglycemia Treatment
Always Carry Rapid-Acting Carbs!

38 Hypoglycemia Treatment
Wt-lbs (BG rise/g) BG 70s BG 60s BG 50s BG 40s BG <40 <40 ( 9-10) 6g 7g 8g 9g 10g ( 7-8) 11g 13g ( 5-6) 12g 14g 16g ( 4) 19g 21g ( 3) 17g 24g 27g >220 ( 2) 20g 25g 30g 35g 40g Once BG has risen, give rapid-acting insulin to cover any overtreatment!

39 Hypoglycemia Treatment
Severe Low Unconscious / Unresponsive Seizure Uncooperative

40 Take-Home Messages Quantify Your Lows Strategize to Minimize
Plan for Proper Treatment

41 The Source of My Highs and Lows

Download ppt "Hypoglycemia Prevention & Treatment"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google