Whats Architecture the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution. (IEEE 1471)
Software Architecture Architecture is important –it should be analyzed Architecture can be prescribed –decisions should be analyzed Architecture is central for communicating –it should be documented Architecture is expensive to change –it is cheaper to analyze early Architecture affects the entire project –many stakeholders should be involved Requirements can be understood early –architecture should be designed to meet them
ATAM - Vocabulary Scenario – A scenario is a short statement describing an interaction of one of the stakeholders with the system Stakeholder – An individual, team, or organization (or classes thereof) with interests in, or concerns relative to, a system Architectural view – A representation of a whole system from the perspective of a related set of concerns Functional requirements - specify what software has to do. Non-functional requirements specify how well it should be done.
Whats ATAM Purpose: To assess the consequences of architectural decisions in light of quality attribute* requirements. Primarily a risk identification mechanism Not a predictor of quality achievement *Quality attribute = ilities
System Quality Attribute PerformanceAvailabilityUsabilitySecurity MaintainabilityPortabilityReusabilityTestability End Users view Developers view Time To Market Cost and Benefits Projected life time Targeted Market Integration with Legacy System Roll back Schedule Business Community view
ATAM – Cost/Benefit Cost –1 – 2 weeks of time for 8 – 10 highly paid people, 2 days for another people (for full formal process!) –Delays project start –Forces development of architecture up front Benefit –Financial – saves money –Forces preparation / documentation / understanding –Captures rationale –Catch architectural errors before built –Make sure architecture meets scenarios –More general, flexible architecture –Reduces risk
ATAM Steps Phase 1 – evaluators and decision makers –Present ATAM Business drivers Architecture –Identify architectural approaches –Generate quality attribute utility tree –Analyze architectural approaches Phase 2 – add stakeholders –Brainstorm and prioritize scenarios –Analyze architectural approaches –Present results Phase 3 –Analyze cost / benefit of ATAM Repeat the last steps of phase 1 In a broader forum…
Step 1: Present ATAM Evaluation Team presents an overview of the ATAM ATAM steps in brief ATAM steps in brief Techniques Techniques - utility tree generation - architecture elicitation and analysis - scenario brainstorming/mapping Outputs Outputs - architectural approaches - utility tree - scenarios - risks and non-risks - sensitivity points and tradeoffs
Step 2: Present Business Drivers ATAM customer representative describes the systems business drivers including: – – Business context for the system – – High-level functional requirements – – High-level quality attribute requirements – – Architectural drivers: quality attributes that shape the architecture – – Critical requirements: quality attributes most central to the systems success
Step 3: Present the Architecture Architect presents an overview of the architecture including (for example): – –Technical constraints such as an OS, hardware, or middle-ware prescribed for use – –Other systems with which the system must interact – –Architectural approaches/styles used to address quality attribute requirements Evaluation team begins probing for and capturing risks.
Step 4: Identify Architectural Approaches Start to identify places in the architecture that are key for realizing quality attribute goals. Identify any predominant architectural approaches – for example: – –client-server – –3-tier – –proxy – –publish-subscribe – –redundant hardware
Step 5: Generate Utility Tree Identify, prioritize, and refine the most important quality attribute goals by building a utility tree. – –A utility tree is a top-down vehicle for characterizing the driving attribute-specific requirements – –Select the most important quality goals to be the high-level nodes (typically performance, modifiability, security, and availability) – –Scenarios are the leaves of the utility tree Output: a characterization and a prioritization of specific quality attribute requirements.
Step 5: Utility Tree /cont.
Step 5- Scenarios Scenarios are used to – –Represent stakeholders interests – –Understand quality attribute requirements Scenarios should cover a range of – –Anticipated uses of (use case scenarios), – –Anticipated changes to (growth scenarios), or – –Unanticipated stresses (exploratory scenarios) to the system. A good scenario makes clear what the stimulus is that causes it and what responses are of interest.
Step 5 – Scenario examples Use case scenario – –Remote user requests a database report via the Web during peak period and receives it within 5 seconds. Growth scenario – –Add a new data server to reduce latency in scenario 1 to 2.5 seconds within 1 person-week. Exploratory scenario – –Half of the servers go down during normal operation without affecting overall system availability. Scenarios should be as specific as possible.
Step 6: Analyze Architectural Approaches Scenarios Vs. Vs.Architecture
Step 6: Analysis /cont. Evaluation Team probes architectural approaches from the point of view of specific quality attributes to identify risks. – –Identify the approaches that pertain to the highest priority quality attribute requirements – –Generate quality-attribute specific questions for highest priority quality attribute requirement – –Ask quality-attribute specific questions – –Identify and record risks and non-risks, sensitivity points and tradeoffs
Step 6: Analysis /cont. Quality attribute questions probe styles to elicit architectural decisions which bear on quality attribute requirements. Examples – –Performance How are priorities assigned to processes? What are the message arrival rates? What are transaction processing times? – –Modifiability Are there any places where layers/facades are circumvented ? What components rely on detailed knowledge of message formats? What components are connected asynchronously?
Step 6: Sensitivity & Tradeoffs Sensitivity – A property of a component that is critical to success of system. –The number of simultaneous database clients will affect the number of transaction a database can process per second. This assignment is a sensitivity point for the performance –Keeping a backup database affects reliability –Power of encryption (Security) sensitive to number of bits of the key Tradeoff point- A property that affects more than one attribute or sensitivity point. –In order to achieve the required level of performance in the discrete event generation component, assembly language had to be used thereby reducing the portability of this component. –Keeping the backup database affects performance also so its a trade- off between reliability and performance
Steps 6: Risks & Non-Risks Risk –The decision to keep backup is a risk if the performance cost is excessive –Rules for writing business logic modules in the second tier of your 3-tier style are not clearly articulated. This could result in replication of functionality thereby compromising modifiability of the third tier. Non Risk –The decision to keep backup is a non-risk if the performance cost is not excessive –Assuming message arrival rates of once per second, a processing time of less than 30 ms, and the existence of one higher priority process, a 1 second soft deadline seems reasonable Performance.
Step 7: Brainstorm & Prioritize Scenarios Stakeholders generate scenarios using a facilitated brainstorming process. – –Scenarios at the leaves of the utility tree serve as examples to facilitate the step. – –The new scenarios are added to the utility tree Each stakeholder is allocated a number of votes roughly equal to 0.3 x #scenarios.
Step 8: Analyze Architectural Approaches Identify the architectural approaches impacted by the scenarios generated in the previous step. This step continues the analysis started in step 6 using the new scenarios. Continue identifying risks and non-risks. Continue annotating architectural information.
Step 9: Present ATAM results Architectural approaches Utility tree Scenarios Risks and non-risks Sensitivity points and tradeoffs