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PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, STRESS AND HEALTH AND THE WORLD OF WORK Presented By Matthew M Ncube ILO Specialist Working Conditions and Environment Public Service.

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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, STRESS AND HEALTH AND THE WORLD OF WORK Presented By Matthew M Ncube ILO Specialist Working Conditions and Environment Public Service."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, STRESS AND HEALTH AND THE WORLD OF WORK Presented By Matthew M Ncube ILO Specialist Working Conditions and Environment Public Service Employee Health & Wellness Indaba V 9 th -12- October 2005

3 SCOPE OF PRESENTATION Background, Introduction and Objectives, Definition of Stress, ILO Safework Infocus Programme on Working Conditions and Environment, Stress in the World of Work, Proactive Interventions Against Stress, Prevention of Stress, Recommendations, Conclusion

4 Objectives, Background, and Introduction To highlight the adverse impact of stress in the world of work, To motivate for the development and implementation of proactive strategic responses against psychosocial factors in the world of work, To provide information on the ILO response to HIV/AIDS in the World of Work in the context of psychosocial factors.

5 MOTIVATIORS IF WE ALWAYS DO WHAT WE HAVE ALWAYS DONE WE WILL GET WHAT WE ALWAYS HAVE NOTHING NO PROGRESS AT ALL, WE NEED TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE PLATEAU OF SATURATION THROUGH INNOVATION FOR OUR SURVIVAL AND FUTURE WE SPEND OUR TIME PREPARING TO LIVE AND WHEN ARE WE GOING TO LIVE

6 DEFINITION OF STRESS A force which deforms bodies, Bodys general plan for adapting to all exerted influences, changes, demands and strains, Plan comes into action once the body is exposed to the strain factors that range from violence, exposure to hazards at work, Stress factors include physical, mental and psychosocial elements, Stress is response of the body to strenuous factors, influences and demands.

7 Definition of Stress…… Stress affects the wear and tear of the body, Background stress is desirable as a source of motivation, Stress fuels the bodys activity, The response of the body to stress depends on a number of factors of the individual, Adverse effects are exerted when the body is subjected to excessive levels of stress.

8 ILO SAFEWORK INFOCUS PROGRAMME WORLD OF WORK EMPLOYERS ORGANIZATIONS WORKERS 0RGANIZATIONS GOVERNMENT COMMUNITY

9 ILO Safework Infocus Programme on OSH ILO Conventions on Safety and Health, Hazard Profiling, Health Risk Assessments, Proactive Operational Programmes for Occupational Safety and Health, Psychosocial Factors in the World of Work, Action at National and Enterprise Levels.

10 ILO Safework Infocus Programme on OSH Prevent occupational non-disabling and disabling injuries, Prevent occupational illnesses and diseases, Prevent downgrading factors on the economy or business processes, Responsible care concept regarding community responsibilities.

11 HAZARD PROFILING AND HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT What are the Hazards? Exposure Characteristics? Acute and Chronic Effects? Evaluation of Hazards? Prevention and Protection? HAZARDS: Chemicals, Physical, Engineering, Biological, Ergonomics, Psychosocial HEALTH EFFECTS?

12 PROACTIVE OSH PROGRAMMES Occupational Safety, Occupational Health Services, Occupational Hygiene Services, Occupational Safety and Health Promotion, Occupational Safety and Health Training, Integrated proactive intervention approach.

13 Stress in the World of Work Management attributes and techniques, Prevailing psychosocial conditions, Person and environment fit, Social, Emotional and Physiological Approach, Social Support, Sexual harassment, Violence in the World of Work, Unemployment and Insecurity.

14 Stress in the World of Work MANAGERIAL STYLE, ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND CULTURE, PERFORMANCE MEASURES AND COMPENSATION, STAFFING ISSUES, ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION,

15 STRESS IN THE WORLD OF WORK CAREER STAGES, SELF ESTEEM GENDER, JOB STRESS AND ILNESS, ETHNICITY, ERGONOMICS SHIFT WORK.

16 STRESS IN THE WORLD OF WORK HAZARDS SOCIAL GENDER ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE SELF ESTEEM ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALISATION SEXUAL HARASSMENT STAFFING ISSUES

17 1. Management Attributes and Techniques Non defined operational policies and procedures, Poor interactive synergies and feedback, Lack of social dialogue, Lack of defined job processes, Autocratic and disregard for employees, Poor involvement of employees.

18 2. Prevailing Psychosocial Conditions ILO Resolution (1975) Work should respect workers lives and health, Leave them time for rest and leisure, Provide opportunities to serve society, Provide for development of personal capacities for self-fulfilment, Workplace should provide for social support and recognition, We need to relate our work to social life.

19 3. SOCIAL SUPPORT Lack of support from peers, Lack of support from social groups, Lack of support from immediate family, Lack of support in the workplace, Interactive variables that include psychosocial psychobiological and individual psychological stress reaction provoke final outcome of physical illness.

20 4. SEXUAL HARASSMENT Applies to both female and male employees, Supervisor and subordinate interrelationships, Sexual remarks and comments, Sexual favours for rewards, Posterity packages. Both verbal and physical specifically directed. It is unwelcome, undesirable and variable.

21 5. VIOLENCE IN THE WORLD OF WORK Verbal abuse, Abusive language, Physical violence, Derogatory language, Demographic attributes also feature with individual characteristics, Control at organization level has been very poor.

22 6. INSECURITY Security of employment uncertain, National economic performance, Retrenchments, Social Protection, Employment opportunities,

23 7. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Ambiguous organizational structure, Poor communication characterized by rumor mongering, Lack of clearly defined operational policies and procedures, Lack of clearly defined management systems, Lack of organizational character, Workers feel insecure with little information.

24 8. ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND CULTURE Organization lacks motivation, Workers do not belong and do not have identity, Every one does whatever they fee like because the system does not care, Executives and management operate in cocooned stratified levels, What is our mission and vision and is it known?

25 9. ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIALIZATION Does the organization provide for opportunities for social staff interaction? Do we recognize the important role of promoting employee interaction? Promoting accommodation of all employees through sharing of problems and challenges, TEAM building together everyone achieves more.

26 10. PERFOMANCE MEASURES AND COMPENSATION No clearly defined corporate functional objectives, Employees do not know how they fit into the organizations goals and objectives, Individual functional objectives not set and fully explained to all employees, Measures of performance are not defined, Appraisals are not comprehensive, Merit and reward system is not well defined.

27 11. STAFFING ISSUES Inadequate staffing levels, Lack of clear organ gram with properly assigned functional staffing levels, Overloading employees with unrealistic targets and goals, Staff and skills development, Proper job assignment, Lack of a comprehensive promotional system.

28 12. CAREER STAGES No clearly defined career development policy, Succession planning and preparedness, Promotion system, Access to equal opportunities, Recognition and identification of high flyers, Effective recruitment system.

29 13. SELF ESTEEM Favourability individuals typical of self evaluation, Low esteem highly susceptible to environmental stressors, Highly esteemed cope better with stresses, Self esteem is actually self evaluation and perception, Measure of self confidence very essential

30 14. GENDER, JOB STRESS AND ILLNESS Effects of stress on women still need further comprehensive research, Coronary heart disease prevalence has been found to be high among men, Women need to cope with demands of pregnancy, Women therefore are highly susceptible than men however further investigations are needed regarding job placement.

31 15. ETHNICITY Cross cultural aspects, Aspects of poverty, economic marginality, inadequate housing, unemployment, crime and discrimination, Not usually and traditionally identified, Prejudice and discrimination are the notable stressors, Influences assignment with regard to allocation of favourable conditions.

32 16. SHIFT WORK Circadian rhythms, Immune system, Adaptation considerations, Health environment, Recuperation period, Proper management of shift work, Evaluation of effects of shift work.

33 17. ERGONOMICS Design of work stations, Design and specification of jobs, Standard job procedures, Assignment of job tasks, Synchronization of operational procedures, Review of operational procedures, Introduction of new technology or innovations.

34 IMPACT OF STRESS Raised heart beat, High blood pressure, Increased muscle tension, Electrodermal (sweat gland activity), Disturbance of cardiac output, Disturbed breathing patterns, Modifications in gastro intestinal activity, Disturbed immune functional system.

35 IMPACT OF STRESS Disturbed hormonal responses of the cathecolamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline and cortisol), Effects on blood clotting, Release of reserve energy from adipose tissue, Blood pressure during working time than leisure time.

36 IMPACT OF STRESS o Increased alcohol and substance abuse, o Reckless and irresponsible sexual behaviour, o High susceptibility to illnesses, o Compromised immune system, o Burn out that leads to deprived and compromised illhealth, o High risk to occupational accidents, o Low productivity.

37 BURN OUT!! BURN OUT!!! BODY HAS EXCEEDED CAPACITY TO RESIST ILL HEALTH EFFECTS HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR HIGH BODY EXHAUSTION REDUCED IMMUNE SYSTEM MOBILE TIME BOMB

38 IMPACT OF STRESS Body has a limited capacity to deal with stress, Break point, Recuperation, Fair wear and tear of the body, High risk behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS responsible and proactive behaviour.

39 IMPACT OF STRESS Gastro intestinal effect, Irregular eating habits, Poor nutrition, Poor state of wellness, Disturbed eating patterns and habits.

40 PROACTIVE INTERVENTIONS Identify causes of stress, Identify sources of stress, Develop and implement effective proactive interventions, Review policies of corporate organizations, Redesign jobs,

41 PROACTIVE INTERVENTIONS Improve communication system, Review of personnel policies, Cascade decision making process to lower levels, Conduct periodic stress audits, Establish a comprehensive monitoring system for stress in the world of work through stress audits as a means of regular monitoring.

42 PROACTIVE INTERVENTIONS Monitoring system for stress focusing on the following: Job content, Work scheduling, Physical working conditions, Employment terms and expected outputs, Relationships to work, Communication systems and reporting protocol.

43 SECONDARY PREVENTION OF STRESS IN THE WORLD OF WORK Develop and implement stress management courses to enhance recognition of stress, Include simple relaxation techniques, Change of life style, Time management, Development of personal stress management techniques, Return to work preparation of employee programme very essential.

44 ILO RESPONSE TO HIV/AIDS ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS in World of Work, Ten Key principles: Recognition of HIV/AIDS as a Workplace Issue, Non-discrimination, Gender equality, Healthy work environment, Social dialogue, Screening for purposes of exclusion from work, Confidentiality,

45 ILO CODE OF PRACTICE ON HIV/AIDS o Continuation of employment relationships, o Prevention and proactive initiatives, o Care and support. o Programme implementation strategies and operational activities, o Comprehensively defined measures of performance?

46 RECOMMENDATIONS We need to develop and implement effective measures to monitor stress in the world of work, We need to recognize the impact of stress on HIV/AIDS initiatives, We need to develop proactive effective management systems for stress in the world of work, We need to address the hazards of stress in the world of work through proactive interventions.

47 THE WAY FORWARD HIV/AIDS poses the single greatest challenge to the survival of humanity, We need to make a difference in each and every day that we have as an opportunity, The proactive approach is not a luxury but a must, The role of the Public Service in driving national economic development needs to be acknowledged and provide leadership.

48 CONCLUSION Each and every one of us need to acknowledge that we are a potential resource of opportunity for change. What can we contribute to the KHOMANANI National Initiative? Employees make an important contribution to national economic development in our member states.

49 REFERENCES ILO Encyclopaedia on Occupatioanl Safety and Health, Integrated Occupational Occupational Safety and Health Management ISSA Publication 154 of 2003 Matthew M Ncube and Edwin Kaseke. (website)


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