Presentation on theme: "Job Hazard Analysis I. Speaker’s Notes:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Job Hazard Analysis I. Speaker’s Notes: Job hazard analysis (JHA) is an essential part of any effective safety program. By getting everyone involved in the process, it gives us extra sets of eyes and ears to help identify potential hazards in the workplace. This program will identify the process and the different techniques that can be used to effectively perform a JHA.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
2 Regulatory Requirements No current OSHA standardOSHA provides guidelines on Job Hazard AnalysisSome organizations refer to it as Job Safety AnalysisOSHA is likely to review your hazard assessment programI. Speaker’s Notes:Remember that OSHA guidelines are only guidelines. Therefore, a company cannot be cited for failure to follow them. However, the more of the regulators’ guidelines a company follows, the easier it is to demonstrate the importance of safety to management.JHA is often referred to by companies as Job Safety Analysis or JSA. The principles are the same regardless of the name used to describe it.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
3 What Is Job Hazard Analysis? Method of identifying hazardsMeans of breaking the process downSystem for employees to easily understand hazardsI. Speaker’s Notes:Obviously, hazards cannot be corrected if not identified. By performing a JHA and breaking the job down, it is conceivable that several hazards can be pinpointed in each step throughout an operation. Looking at an operation as a whole, you may find five or six hazards. But by looking at each step in the operation, you may find five or six hazards per step.JHA is also an outstanding opportunity for you to get involved in the safety program.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
4 Why Perform Job Hazard Analysis? Identify existing hazardsIdentify potential hazardsPrioritize corrective actionsReduce and/or eliminate hazardsI. Speaker’s Notes:Because each hazard can be evaluated for severity, JHA provides for a system to effectively prioritize correction of deficiencies. More energy can be focused on the serious hazards, thus getting more “bang for the buck.”Some hazards are virtually invisible until a step-by-step analysis is performed on a given operation.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
5 Benefits of Job Hazard Analysis Reduces injuriesReduces absenteeismIncreases productivityIncreases moraleProtects employeesAssists in standard-specific compliance (e.g., personal protective equipment)I. Speaker’s Notes:All companies want to reduce injuries. No one likes to see you get hurt. But there are also additional beneficial offshoots of JHA. Companies often see an increase in production due to the identification and abatement of hazards.Management also benefits by having a happier and more content workforce, which is another offshoot of JHA. Also, if the need for protection, such as PPE, is found, then the JHA can be used as the hazard assessment required by the personal protective equipment standard (29 CFR ).Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
6 How Jobs Are Selected for Job Hazard Analysis Jobs with high accident and injury ratesClose callsNew jobsJobs with procedure or process changesAll other jobsI. Speaker’s Notes:The focus starts with the jobs at which the most incidents or injuries have occurred to keep them from getting out of handIt is important not to overlook the other categories, or they may become the operations where the most incidents occur. A system to identify and document all close calls is critical because they are the next serious accident waiting to happen.The program is kept current by reviewing the jobs where the process or equipment has changed because those changes can often result in new hazards, or better yet, they may eliminate existing hazards. Either outcome should be reflected in a new JHA.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
7 Inspections to Identify Hazards General InspectionComprehensiveWall-to-wallSpecial InspectionTargetedSpecific to exposuresBased on facility operationsFormal ToursWeekly, monthly, or dailyMaintenance and production reviewsI. Speaker’s Notes:General inspections can be performed by a number of people, but the most often used candidates are the safety professionals who understand the regulatory requirements. These inspections generally include a review of the entire facility and are very time consuming. They are typically performed once or twice a year.Special inspections focus on areas where problems or potential problems have been discovered. This gives a company a better opportunity to eliminate particular hazards that have been a problem in the past.Formal tours are usually conducted within a department on a routine basis. Oftentimes, one of a supervisor’s responsibilities is to walk his or her area of responsibility on a daily basis looking for safety concerns or hazards.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
8 OSHA Guidelines for Inspections List departments and operations involvedList and describe operational activitiesAssign inspection datesSequence the inspection routeIdentify and instruct follow-up assignmentsI. Background for the Trainer:Documenting the inspection process is important. By following these OSHA guidelines, you will have the appropriate documentation for communication to all affected parties. This allows for much more timely and efficient corrective action. Remember, identifying the problem is one thing, while fixing it is another.II. Speaker’s Notes:These are OSHA guidelines we follow to ensure the effectiveness of Job Hazard Analysis at our facility.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
9 Area Hazard Checklists EvaluateEquipmentProceduresPersonnelI. Background for the Trainer:The easiest hazard to overlook is the one caused by the worker because we are not always there when the hazard presents itself. That is one reason JHA is so important. It requires us to take a look at the entire operation, including equipment, procedures and the workers themselves.II. Speaker’s Notes:Checklists for the equipment, procedures, and the personnel working on a process help ensure that the JHA will cover the entire operation.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
10 Who Is Involved in a JHA? Safety personnel Location manager Operators Design engineersMaintenance personnelI. Speaker’s Notes:A JHA should be a total team effort. The following personnel should be involved in the JHA process:Safety personnel–Trained to identify hazards and know regulatory requirements.Managers–Know production schedules and have the authority to implement changes.Operators–Know the operation better than anyone else.Design engineers–Design the operation and can help “design out” identified hazards.Maintenance personnel–Work on the equipment and are familiar with potential problems and hazards presented by it.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
11 Elements of an Operation Start-upOperationShutdownI. Background for the Trainer:Don’t overlook any of these. It is extremely easy to only review the operational requirements and ignore start-up and shutdown. Remember, there are hazards in these two steps, too.II. Speaker’s Notes:In performing a JHA, all the elements of a process must be observed, including start-up, operation, and shutdown.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
12 Steps in Performing a JHA Step 1 – Break down the jobStep 2 – Identify the hazardsStep 3 – Evaluate the hazardsStep 4 – Recommend safe procedures and protection measuresStep 5 – Revise the Job Hazard AnalysisI. Speaker’s Notes:Break down the job–Allows for the identification of all hazards, even if they are repetitious throughout the operation.Identify the hazards–Hazards are things like lacerations, muscle strains, etc.Evaluate the hazards–Done to make a determination of how to reduce or eliminate them.Recommend protection–Allows us to mitigate the problem.Revise the JHA–Must be done if the current JHA is ineffective or if the operation changes.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
13 Breaking Down the Job List each job step in order of occurrence Describe each actionExamine each step for hazardsConduct a “what if” scenario for each stepI. Speaker’s Notes:These steps are used to break down a process:Each step is listed and described in order of occurrence.Each step is examined for hazards.A “what if” scenario is conducted to determine what could go wrong.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
14 Hazards to Focus On Impact Penetration Harmful airborne contaminants Repetitive motionsHeatCompressionChemical exposuresOptical radiationI. Background for the Trainer:Be sure to mention any hazards specific to your facility that are not included on this list.II. Speaker’s Notes:This list includes most of the hazards that will be encountered on the JHA. It is not all-inclusive—other hazards may be present in certain processes.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
15 Identifying Hazards Sharp edges Employee jewelry Potential for being caught in betweenWorker posture/balanceHazardous movements“Struck by” hazardsSuspended loadsEnvironmental hazardsI. Background for the Trainer:Be sure to include and discuss any hazards specific to your facility.II. Speaker’s Notes:This is a list of potential hazards found in our facility. Can you think of any others?Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
16 Evaluating Hazards What PPE is available? Has worker been trained? Is the worker positioned properly?Is lockout/tagout used?What is the flow of work?What are the sources of chemicals, noise, etc.Are slips, trips, and falls a possibility?I. Speaker’s Notes:Measures to reduce or eliminate hazards may already be in place. The ones on this list are looked at to determine how effective they are. If necessary, changes are made to correct the problem or enhance the measure’s effectiveness.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
17 Control Method Hierarchy Proper remedial method order:Engineering controlsAdministrative controlsPersonal protective equipmentI. Speaker’s Notes:Engineering controls can sometimes be expensive, but over the long run, they are most effective because they usually eliminate the hazard. Things like local exhaust systems or machine guards are good examples of engineering controls.Administrative controls involve things like training, procedures, and worker rotations.Only use personal protective equipment when no other method of control can reduce the risk associated with a hazard.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
18 When a JHA Is Revised When an accident or injury occurs When the job changesAfter a close callFollowing an employee complaintIf equipment suffers damagePer a scheduled review (e.g., biannually)I. Speaker’s Notes:If any of the items listed here are discovered, the JHA is reviewed. Sometimes accidents occur from human error, but other times they occur because we may have overlooked some hazards involved in a process.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
19 Quiz1. OSHA currently has a required standard on job hazard analysis. True or False2. A JHA is a method of ________ hazards, a means of ________ down the job, as well as a system to help employees understand __________.3. A priority system is valuable for effective JHA. True or False4. Job hazard analysis is much more effective if only one person performs it to eliminate confusion. True or False5. The three elements of a typical operation are _____________, _____________, and _____________.I. Background for the Trainer:Hand out the quiz copies. Go over the questions orally and have the employees write their answers on their quiz sheets.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
20 Quiz (cont.)6. The hierarchy to use for control measures in order, is engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment. True or False7. The number-one priority for job hazard analysis are jobs where injuries or accidents have occurred. True or False8. Name two of the benefits of job hazard analysis.9. Job Hazard Analysis is sometimes referred to as Job Safety Analysis. True or False10. Three types of inspections conducted to identify hazards are general inspections, special inspections, and individual inspections. True or FalseCopyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
21 Quiz Answers 1. False. Only OSHA has guidelines for JHA. 2. A JHA is a method of identifying hazards, a means of breaking down the job, as well as a system to help employees understand hazards.3. True. A priority system is a must.4. False. Effective JHA requires a team effort.5. The three elements of a typical operation are start-up, operations, and shutdown.6. True. In order, they are engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.
22 Quiz Answers (cont.)7. True. Injuries and accidents always take top priority.8. Benefits of JHA include reduced injuries, reduced absenteeism, increased productivity, increased morale, employee protection, and standard-specific compliance.9. True. JHA is often referred to as JSA.10. False. The three types of inspections conducted to identify hazards are general inspections, special inspections, and formal tours.Copyright ã1999 Business & Legal Reports, Inc.