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Copyright 1987-2009 1 Asimov's Laws of Robotics. Copyright 1987-2009 2 Human-Artefact Hybridisation (Cyborgisation)

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 1987-2009 1 Asimov's Laws of Robotics. Copyright 1987-2009 2 Human-Artefact Hybridisation (Cyborgisation)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Asimov's Laws of Robotics

2 Copyright Human-Artefact Hybridisation (Cyborgisation)

3 Copyright Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor in Cyberspace Law & Policy, UNSW and in Computer Science, ANU Chair, Australian Privacy Foundation Access and Privacy Workshop Toronto – October {.html,.ppt}

4 Copyright Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor in Cyberspace Law & Policy, UNSW and in Computer Science, ANU Chair, Australian Privacy Foundation Access and Privacy Workshop Toronto – October {.html,.ppt} Surveillance in Speculative Fiction

5 Copyright Surveillance in Speculative Fiction AGENDA Surveillance Speculative Fiction Genres Surveillance in Speculative Fiction and in Reality Aural Visual Person Id, Location and Tracking Counterveillance Sousveillance Is Privacy Really Dead?

6 Copyright Surveillance The systematic monitoring or investigation of the actions or communications of one or more persons, directly, or through the monitoring of space or objects Personal Surveillance Focus on an identified person: because of suspicion about that individual for activity deterrence / behaviour repression Mass Surveillance Focus on groups or spaces: to generate suspects for activity deterrence / behaviour repression

7 Copyright PHYSICAL Surveillance Localised Listening, Observation At Distance (Enhanced Listening, Observation) Sound-Amplification Devices (directional microphones) Image-Amplification Devices (field glasses, infrared binoculars, light amplifiers, satellite cameras) Auto (i.e. by means of the Self) Devices that are attached to the person: loosely but reliably ('mil dog-tags', mobile phone) tightly (anklet) implanted

8 Copyright 'ELECTRONIC' Surveillance 'Speech Surveillance' Mail Covers, Telephone Interception, Interception: connections monitoring / traffic analysis (who is talking with whom) communications surveillance (who is saying what to whom) 'Experience Surveillance' / 'Behaviour Surveillance' The Web enables surveillance of: pages visited (to support selective advertising) books bought books and articles read at home or in the library Metered Road Usage; Identified Public Transport Tickets

9 Copyright What were once Ephemera Observed Are Now Events Recorded and Analysed What was 'NOW OR NEVER' is now 'SOONER OR LATER' ENABLERS: Sound-Recording Speech-Traffic-Recording Image-Recording Transaction-Recording FACILITATORS : Trail-Generation Trail-Correlation NEW CAPABILITIES: Retrospective Analysis Real-Time Location Real-Time Tracking Anticipatory Tracking

10 Copyright Dataveillance The systematic use of personal data systems in the monitoring or investigation of the actions or communications of one or more persons

11 Copyright Dataveillance The systematic use of personal data systems in the monitoring or investigation of the actions or communications of one or more persons Term first published in Commun. ACM in ,200 / 14,000 hits on Google in 2007 / / 1,230 hits on Google Scholar in 2007 / 2009 (at least 166 / 425 of which do not contain 'Clarke')

12 Copyright Categorisation of Surveillance (1)Of What? Person, Object, Space (2)For Whom? Person, Involved Party, Third Party (3) By Whom? Person, Involved Party, Third Party (4) Why? Wellbeing, Evidence, Deterrence (5) How? Physical (visual, aural, at distance, auto-surveillance); Dataveillance (retrospective, real-time, predictive); Communications / Experience; Personal / Mass Surveillance (6) Where? Physical, Virtual, Intellectual (7) When? Once, Recurrent, Scattered, Continuous

13 Copyright Genres Anti-Utopia / Dystopia We (Zamyatin) Human-as-Cockroach The Shockwave Rider (Brunner) Cyberpunk Neuromancer (Gibson) Cyberprep

14 Copyright Anti-Utopia / Dystopia – 1

15 Copyright Anti-Utopia / Dystopia – 2

16 Copyright Human as Cockroach

17 Copyright Cyberpunk

18 Copyright Aural Surveillance

19 Copyright Visual Surveillance

20 Copyright Identification, Location and Tracking Identification (who?) Location (where?) Tracking (from where to where?) Retrospective Real-Time Prospective Artefacts as Proxies Motor Vehicles Mobile Phones Iris Scanning Attachments Implantation

21 Copyright Identification, Location and Tracking Vehicles as Proxies The policemen on duty have instantaneous kodaks mounted on tripods, which show the position of any vehicle at quarter-second intervals, by which it is easy to ascertain the exact speed; so there is no danger of a vehicle's speed exceeding that allowed

22 Copyright Identification, Location and Tracking Vehicles as Proxies The policemen on duty have instantaneous kodaks mounted on tripods, which show the position of any vehicle at quarter-second intervals, by which it is easy to ascertain the exact speed; so there is no danger of a vehicle's speed exceeding that allowed John Jacob Astor IV

23 Copyright Identification, Location and Tracking Vehicles as Proxies The policemen on duty have instantaneous kodaks mounted on tripods, which show the position of any vehicle at quarter-second intervals, by which it is easy to ascertain the exact speed; so there is no danger of a vehicle's speed exceeding that allowed John Jacob Astor IV Died on the Titanic, 1912

24 Copyright Identification, Location and Tracking Vehicles as Proxies Vehicle Id She fumbled in the storage compartment on the instrument board, apparently purposelessly. But the registration number which the traffic control automatically photographed as she left the controlway was not the number in which the car was registered

25 Copyright Identification, Location and Tracking Vehicles as Proxies Vehicle Id She fumbled in the storage compartment on the instrument board, apparently purposelessly. But the registration number which the traffic control automatically photographed as she left the controlway was not the number in which the car was registered Robert Heinlein, 1941

26 Copyright Identification, Location and Tracking Vehicles as Proxies Vehicle Id She fumbled in the storage compartment on the instrument board, apparently purposelessly. But the registration number which the traffic control automatically photographed as she left the controlway was not the number in which the car was registered Robert Heinlein, 1941 ANPR Invented in 1976, Deployed in 1979

27 Copyright Iris Scanning 'Minority Report', Stephen Spielberg, Dreamworks, Released 12 June 2002

28 Copyright Iris Scanning 'Minority Report', Stephen Spielberg, Dreamworks, Released 12 June 2002 Abu Dhabi Illegal Immigrant scheme Deployed October 2002

29 Copyright Attachments for Felons (and Remandees, and...) Tattletales "...But if we do let you go, you must agree to carry tattletales with you at all times. Inquire of your attorney Mr. Sharp if that will be acceptable." "What the hell is a tattletale?" Joe Schilling asked. "A tracing device," Hawthorne said. "It will inform us where each of you are at all times" – Philip K. Dick, 1963

30 Copyright Attachments for Felons (and Remandees, and...) Tattletales "...But if we do let you go, you must agree to carry tattletales with you at all times. Inquire of your attorney Mr. Sharp if that will be acceptable." "What the hell is a tattletale?" Joe Schilling asked. "A tracing device," Hawthorne said. "It will inform us where each of you are at all times" – Philip K. Dick, 1963 Ankle Monitors / Electronic Tagging of Humans First officially sanctioned use, in New Mexico, 1983

31 Copyright Human Implantation Radiant – a substance injected into the shoulder, providing positioning, information – Jack Vance, 1954 The Ring – 'A surgically implanted electronic monitor that caused agony when a convict strayed... ' – Piers Anthony and Robert Margroff, 1968Skull Bug – Electronic device implanted in the cranium at birth, for monitoring and control – Alfred Bester, 1974

32 Copyright Human Implantation Radiant – a substance injected into the shoulder, providing positioning, information – Jack Vance, 1954 The Ring – 'A surgically implanted electronic monitor that caused agony when a convict strayed... ' – Piers Anthony and Robert Margroff, 1968Skull Bug – Electronic device implanted in the cranium at birth, for monitoring and control – Alfred Bester, 1974 Resistance from a journal editor about the idea – 1992

33 Copyright Human Implantation Radiant – a substance injected into the shoulder, providing positioning, information – Jack Vance, 1954 The Ring – 'A surgically implanted electronic monitor that caused agony when a convict strayed... ' – Piers Anthony and Robert Margroff, 1968Skull Bug – Electronic device implanted in the cranium at birth, for monitoring and control – Alfred Bester, 1974 Resistance from a journal editor about the idea – 1992 First chip implantation in animals – 1991

34 Copyright Human Implantation First voluntary chip implantation in humans – 1998

35 Copyright Human Implantation Radiant – a substance injected into the shoulder, providing positioning, information – Jack Vance, 1954 The Ring – 'A surgically implanted electronic monitor that caused agony when a convict strayed... ' – Piers Anthony and Robert Margroff, 1968Skull Bug – Electronic device implanted in the cranium at birth, for monitoring and control – Alfred Bester, 1974 Resistance from a journal editor about the idea – 1992 First chip implantation in animals – 1991 First voluntary chip implantation in humans – 1998 First imposed chip implantation in humans – 2000? 2004?

36 Copyright Countersurveillance Spoofing of Traffic-Monitoring Camera – "... the registration number which the traffic control automatically photographed as she left the controlway was not the number in which the car was registered" – Robert Heinlein, 1941 Spy-Proof Office – montors received a conversation constructed at random out of a vast stock of innocuous phrases in various tone and voices. And undetectably so' – Isaac Asimov, 1951 Radiant Shield – A pad of woven metal around the shoulder and chest – Jack Vance, 1954 Probe Screen Hood – A device that blocks attempts to see into the contents of the brain mind – Philip K. Dick, 1955 Eavesdropper – an object that will detect if a is microphone is close enough to pick up conversation – James Blish, 1957

37 Copyright Sousveillance The Unsleeping Eye – substituted for a human eye D.G. Compton, 1973, filmed as La mort en direct, 1980 Wearcam – Steve Mann, c True-Vu Lenses – 'Oldsters used electronic sun hats and True-Vu goggles to surveil young people and any other trouble makers. The goggles would record whatever the wearer was watching, and then upload it to a secure location (in case anything happened)' – David Brin, 1990 Sousveillance – Steven Mann, coined c for the use of optic technologies to observe those in authority Alibi Archive – A recording of transmissions from a personal implant, storing everything that happened to that individual – Robert J. Sawyer, 2003

38 Copyright The Blurring of Speculative Fiction and Reality

39 Copyright Interpretations You have zero privacy anyway, get over it Privacy is for people with something to hide Privacy through secrecy is dead Newgens have a completely different approach Privacy is bruised but unbowed Privacy is essential for humanity to survive

40 Copyright Surveillance in Speculative Fiction AGENDA Surveillance Speculative Fiction Genres Surveillance in Speculative Fiction and in Reality Aural Visual Person Id, Location and Tracking Counterveillance Sousveillance Is Privacy Really Dead?

41 Copyright Conclusions Surveillance offers fiction-writers a lot of scope Authors' imaginations have mostly run only a few, short decades ahead of technology

42 Copyright Conclusions Surveillance offers fiction-writers a lot of scope Authors' imaginations have mostly run only a few, short decades ahead of technology Surveillance is increasing privacy concerns Active opposition is imminent, as surveillance goes beyond the levels of acceptability

43 Copyright Conclusions Surveillance offers fiction-writers a lot of scope Authors' imaginations have mostly run only a few, short decades ahead of technology Surveillance is increasing privacy concerns Active opposition is imminent, as surveillance goes beyond the levels of acceptability 'We must teach our technologies to forget' Maybe we must also teach our technologies to forego data collection, except with consent or where reasonable grounds for suspicion exist


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