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Copyright, 1995-2002 1 Invitation to Research RESEARCH TECHNIQUES – CHALLENGES Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, CSIS, Uni.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, 1995-2002 1 Invitation to Research RESEARCH TECHNIQUES – CHALLENGES Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, CSIS, Uni."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, Invitation to Research RESEARCH TECHNIQUES – CHALLENGES Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, CSIS, Uni of Hong Kong Visiting Fellow, Australian National University /59-Chall.ppt ebs, January 2003

2 Copyright, Finding Participants Population Population Strata Sampling Frame Sample Random, or Weighted Random Non-Random: Judgement (e.g. in Delphi Surveys) Convenience Snowball (referral) Achieved Sample

3 Copyright, Common Problems – Methods Convenience Reference Theories applied unquestioningly Rogers innovation diffusion theory Hofstedes cultural factors theory Williamsons transaction costs theory Semi-structured interviews masquerade as case studies Lone Cases, Shallow Cases, Pseudo-Cases Consultancy as [Action] Research Surveys are used as the sole technique even when: in-depth information is needed as well in-depth information is needed instead Over-surveyed populations avoid responding

4 Copyright, Common Problems – Surveys Unclear Survey Objectives, and Survey Design Generally Unclear Definition of Population, Sampling Frame, Sample Convenience Samples, and Proxies instead of Principals Principal-Agent Problem Uncontrolled (Unappreciated?) Respondent Diversity Enormous and Uncontrolled Highly Ambiguous Terminology Differentially Interpreted Lists of Likert or not Data, Masquerading as Information Response-Rate Too Low Response-Count Too Low Non-Response Bias Inadequately Considered

5 Copyright, Common Problems – Survey Questions (Foddy) Answers to factual questions are often wrong What Respondents say and do are often different Respondents attitudes and opinions are unstable Small changes in wording can produce major changes in the distibution of responses Respondents commonly misinterpret questions The sequence of questions affects answers The sequence of options affects answers Open-ended and closed-ended ways of asking the same question elicit different results Many respondents who dont know answer anyway Cultural context affects answers

6 Copyright, e-Business Research Common Problems – Research Management Inadequate Relevance to attract industry funding Inadequate Resourcing to achieve the aims: Researcher Time Supervisor Time Travel Costs Infrastructure Costs Support Staffing Inadequate Timeframe: grant request, grant, candidate search, candidate prep time-variant phenomena demand longitudinal study


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