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Copyright, 1997-2004 1 The Search for Balance: The Past, Present and Future of Privacy Impact Assessments Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, 1997-2004 1 The Search for Balance: The Past, Present and Future of Privacy Impact Assessments Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, 1997-2004 1 The Search for Balance: The Past, Present and Future of Privacy Impact Assessments Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor, Unis. of Hong Kong and U.N.S.W. Visiting Fellow, Dept of Computer Science, ANU {.html,.ppt} Queens University, Kingston ON – 9 June 2004

2 Copyright, 1997-2004 2 The Past, Present and Future of PIAs Agenda 1.Where They Came From 2.What They Are 3.Why PIAs? 4.Can They Counter the PITs?

3 Copyright, 1997-2004 3 Technology Assessment European movement US OTA, 1972-1995 Technologists and Technocrats are too close Social Scientists are too far away: Dont regulate what you dont understand Cross-over Individuals Multi-Disciplinary Teams

4 Copyright, 1997-2004 4 Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) The green movements of the 1960s For major projects since the 1970s Costly and slow One-sided, manipulated, closed, unauditable Public cynicism Public reactions, sometimes fatal to projects Limited by jurisdictional boundaries

5 Copyright, 1997-2004 5 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) the identification of future consequences of a current or proposed action To address the cynicism Public consultation, publication, review Process as well as product Limited by jurisdictional boundaries

6 Copyright, 1997-2004 6 Social Impact Statements Berkeley Gazette, 31 Oct 1974: "... the Council approved a proposed ordinance to require a social impact statement prior to implementation of any new or expanded city automated personal data systems" Motion by Cr Loni Hancock on the suggestion of Lance Hoffman

7 Copyright, 1997-2004 7 Social Impact Assessment (SIA?) an outgrowth of EIA which focuses on the impact of development proposals on people,... including potential changes to population, lifestyle, cultural traditions, community dynamics, and quality of life and well being e.g. U.N. Economics & Trade Program, focussed on developing countries e.g.literature for the developed world ?

8 Copyright, 1997-2004 8 Privacy Impact Statements – 1 of 2 HEW (1973) " Each time a new personal data system is proposed (or expansion of an existing system is contemplated) those responsible for the activity the system will serve, as well as those specifically charged with designing and implementing the system, should answer such questions as... " i.e. the concept, but not the term...

9 Copyright, 1997-2004 9 Privacy Impact Statements – 2 of 2 Flaherty (1989) "The data protection agency can... [prepare] its own evaluations of the potential impact on personal privacy of proposed legislation and information systems.... It is important that small data protection agencies encourage the main government departments to prepare their own initial reviews of the impact of new technology, preferably in the form of 'privacy impact statements'..."

10 Copyright, 1997-2004 10 Privacy Policy Statements / Notices Privacy Notice mania on the Web cf. safe harbor, i.e. image not substance Remarkable absence of guidelines Canadian PCer says: Inform customers, clients and employees that you have policies and practices for the management of personal information Make these policies and practices understandable and easily available

11 Copyright, 1997-2004 11 Privacy Impact Assessment Data Matching Program Protocol – Australia, 1990 The following is to be filed with the Privacy Commer and (generally) made available for public inspection: identities of agencies legal basis for the program program objectives alternative approaches and why rejected details of any cost/benefit analysis undertaken outline of technical controls for data quality, integrity and security in the conduct of the program use of identification numbers the nature of actions resulting from the program

12 Copyright, 1997-2004 12 Privacy Impact Assessment The term was used in publications in 1993-94 by the Privacy Commers of Ontario and BC (Ann Cavoukian and David Flaherty) Discussion session and publications in 1996 by NZ Dep. Privacy Commer (Blair Stewart) Exemplars of PIA Reports from 1995 onwards Guidelines published from 1994 onwards (one obscure guide even from 1991) Many limitations inherent in many Guidelines

13 Copyright, 1997-2004 13 Privacy Impact Assessment A process that surfaces and examines potential impacts and implications of privacy-invasive proposals

14 Copyright, 1997-2004 14 Objectives of the PIA Process Clearly define: business needs stakeholder groups privacy impacts and implications Enable understanding and assessment of the proposal Enable mutual understanding of stakeholder perspectives Ensure reflection of stakeholder perspectives in the outcomes Enable: maximisation of positive impacts avoidance or amelioration of negative impacts Maximise the likelihood of stakeholder support Avoid new requirements emerging late Earn public confidence Raise awareness, educate Anticipate and avoid misinformation campaigns

15 Copyright, 1997-2004 15 Alternative Assessment Perspectives The Sponsor The Sponsors Strategic Partners Service and Technology Providers Users – and Usees / Clients / Regulatees People Business Enterprises and Associations Govt agencies at varying levels of govt The Society / Economy / Polity

16 Copyright, 1997-2004 16 Methods to Support Assessment Sponsor Perspective Only Capital Investment Project Evaluation Discounted Cash Flows, Payback Period, NPV Assumes that all variables are measured in financial terms Deterministic, but can do Sensitivity Analysis Business Case Analysis Supports finl, quantitative, and qualitative measures Multi-Perspective Cost / Benefit Analysis (CBA) Finl, quant, qual measures Less precise, partly qualitative Recognises Opportunity Costs Sensitivity Analysis Cost / Benefit / Risk Analysis (COBRA) CBA + Focuses on key uncertainties Search for countermeasures

17 Copyright, 1997-2004 17 Elements of the PIA Process Surfacing and Examination of the privacy impacts and implications of a proposal Development of a clear understanding of the Business Need that justifies the proposal and its negative impacts Gauging of the Acceptability of the proposal and its features by organisations and people that will be affected by it Assessment of Compliance of the proposal with existing privacy-related laws, codes, best practices and guidelines Constructive Search for, and Evaluation of, better Alternatives Constructive Search for ways to Avoid Negative Impacts, and ways to Ameliorate Unavoidable Negative Impacts Documentation and Publication of the Outcomes

18 Copyright, 1997-2004 18 Who To Consult With? Citizens / Consumers / Users / Usees The people actually affected by the proposal Representatives Understand and can express the concerns of people within a particular population segment Public Interest Advocates Understand the technology, processes and issues Different approaches are necessary

19 Copyright, 1997-2004 19 Consultations with People Most people cant cope with abstractions, and need concrete experiences So prime discussions with mockups, protoypes Use Focus Group technique: diverse group of 6-12 people, preferably without prior knowledge of one another typically for 1.5 to 2.5 hours a Moderator focuses discussion on a topic, but allows it to range across many aspects

20 Copyright, 1997-2004 20 Consultations with Reps and Advocates Stakeholder Analysis and Segmentation Search for Representatives and Advocates Invitation to Participate Background Paper Consultation Workshop Assimilation of information provided into: the Scheme Design a PIA report Feedback

21 Copyright, 1997-2004 21 Contents of a P.I.A. Report Description of the Proposal and its Applications Analysis of Privacy Concerns Summary of Laws, Codes, Best Practices and Guidelines, and Application to the Proposal Evaluation, and Justification for the Privacy Impacts Analysis of Public Acceptability Analysis of Measures to Avoid & Ameliorate Privacy Impacts Appendices: References to Laws, Codes, Best Practices and Guidelines Summary of the Consultative Processes Organisations and Individuals Consulted The Background Information Provided

22 Copyright, 1997-2004 22 Key Features of a PIA – 1 of 2 More Process Than Product Not just an audit of compliance with existing laws Requires active involvement of all relevant parties, and incorporation of ideas into the emergent design (inclusive and participative, or at least consultative) Proxies need to be engaged, in order to: gauge the acceptability of various features constructively search for alternatives constructively search for ways in which negative impacts can be avoided, or at least ameliorated gain commitment

23 Copyright, 1997-2004 23 Key Features of a PIA – 2 of 2 Is performed by the proposals sponsor not by a privacy regulatory agency not fully delegated to a consultant or contractor Commences early, to maximise involvement, avoid suspicion, and minimise re-work costs Involves multiple phases, such that shared understanding increases, and with it commitment Reduces the likelihood of later public opposition and misinformation campaigns, and, even if they are conducted, reduces their credibility

24 Copyright, 1997-2004 24 Advocate Motivations Powerful parties through ignorance, impose schemes that unnecessarily compromise privacy demand that privacy be compromised, but that the interests of the powerful parties not be compromised Advocates want: informed design which avoids invasiveness where its practicable compromise among all interests

25 Copyright, 1997-2004 25 Sponsor Motivations Social Responsibility For-Profits cf. Not-For-Profits cf. Govt Agencies Business Needs Return on Investment Task Transfer / Cost Transfer / Enhanced Svce User Adoption / Acceptance Other-Stakeholder Acceptance Business Not-Needs User Opposition Other-Stakeholder Opposition Bad Press, Embarrassed Ministers

26 Copyright, 1997-2004 26 Public Policy Factors Service Quality Service Accessibility Service Equity Imposition of Effort and Cost Imposition of Risks Freedom of Information Public Safety, OH&S Privacy...

27 Copyright, 1997-2004 27 Equity – Bases for Discrimination Physical Handicaps sight, mobility, or capacity to use a keyboard or mouse Mental Handicaps inability to remember username/password pair, or carry a token Educational Handicaps lack of understanding of prompts, or what to do with a token Lingual Handicaps insufficient local language to understand instructions Location in an institution, in a remote area, in a rural or regional area with outdated infrastructure or inadequate bandwidth, ex-country Lifestyle – traditional, seasonal worker, itinerant, street kid

28 Copyright, 1997-2004 28 Why PIAs ? It may be a Legal Requirement Public Policy may dictate that it be done Stakeholder groups may have sufficient power to force it Project Risk may be reduced Investment Risk may be reduced Adoption may be enhanced The proposals quality may be enhanced

29 Copyright, 1997-2004 29 Limitations of PIAs Pseudo-Imperatives Technology Marketing Economic / Cost- Reduction Security... Imbalance of Power But Internet-Era Social Activism Jurisdictional Limitations in a time of Globalisation

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