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Venus Earth Mars The surface temperature of Venus is around 460 C (890 degrees F ), the hottest average temperature in the Solar System. This is due.

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Presentation on theme: "Venus Earth Mars The surface temperature of Venus is around 460 C (890 degrees F ), the hottest average temperature in the Solar System. This is due."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Venus Earth Mars

3 The surface temperature of Venus is around 460 C (890 degrees F ), the hottest average temperature in the Solar System. This is due to a runaway Greenhouse Effect. The atmosphere of Venus is composed of : 97% CO2, 2% N2 and less than 1% of O2, H2O and CH4 (methane). Since CO2 is a major greenhouse gas, the radiation from the Sun is trapped in the atmosphere of Venus producing an extremely high surface temperature.

4 The surface temperature of Earth is around 15 degrees C (60 F). It is kept warm by the greenhouse effect. Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas on Earth and Carbon dioxide (CO2) is second. Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Ozone (O3) and the CFCs are also relevant greenhouse gases. The dry atmosphere of Earth is composed of : 78% Nitrogen N2 21 % Oxygen O2 0.9 % Argon (Ar) Less than 0.1 % are the trace gases including CO2. The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere varies from between 0 and 4 %.

5 Mean Surface Temperature =-55 C. Unlike the Earth or Venus, the atmosphere of Mars is very thin, about 1% the mass of Earth's atmosphere. Similar Venus Its composition is 95% CO2, 3% N2, 2% Ar and less than 1% O2. James Lovelock (Gaia) suggested that the low abundance of CO2 in Earths Atmosphere and the relatively high abundance of O2 is suggestive of life.

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7 Short wavelengths correspond to high photon energy Hot objects radiate more short wave length photons than cooler objects. UV photons have energies above Visible light IR photon energies are lower than visible light photons

8 The flux of radiation is also referred to as the radiation intensity. It is the amount of radiant energy passing through a surface area each second per unit area.

9 The Solar constant is 1365 W/m 2 This is the average solar energy that reaches the Earths upper Atmosphere if the sun is shining directly on a solar collector. If the collector is tilted a bit then the intensity is weaker since it is spread over a larger area.

10 Assume So=1000 W/m 2 What is S if r=2r o ?

11 Assume So=1000 W/m 2 What is S if r=2r o ?

12 Assume So=1000 W/m 2 What is S if r=.5r o ?

13 Assume So=1000 W/m 2 What is S if r=.5r o ?

14 T K =T C +273 T C =T K -273 T K = T C The mean temperature of Earth is 15 C. What is this on the absolute temperature scale? ( Kelvin scale)

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18 Radiation Laws As temperature increases wavelength of maximum radiant intensity, max, increases. Weins Displacemnet Law. Sun Earth

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21 Black Body =1.0

22 Stefan_Boltzman Radiation Law. As temperature increases total radiation output increases. Brightness = Intensity Energy leaving an object each sec per square meter As T double Brightness increases by ___??____ As T triples Brightness increases by _______

23 Radiation Laws As temperature increases total radiation output increases. Stefan_Boltzman Radiation Law. Brightness = Intensity Energy leaving an object each sec per square meter As T double Brightness increases by 16 As T triples Brightness increases by _81 times = 3x3x3x3__

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42 30 % of sunlight incident on Earth is reflected back into space. I.e. Earths Albedo is 0.30 (30 %).

43 From K. Trenberth, J. Fasullo, and J. Kiehl, EARTHS GLOBAL ENERGY BUDGET BAMS 2009

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