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Metric system Dr. Robert M. MacKay Clark College Physics Clark College

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Basic Units Basic Units length (meters, m) time (sec, s) mass (kilogram, kg) (not weight)

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Time time (sec, s) 1/86 400 of a mean solar day 1 sec is the time required for 9, 192, 631, 770 oscillations of Cs-133 atom (1967) www.time.gov

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Mass kilogram (kg) The mass of a standard object (relic) SI system of Units: : http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/backgroun d.html http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/backgroun d.html

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Length 1.0 meter (1/10 000 000 of distance from pole to equator) distance light travels in 1/299 792 458 s (1983) 1 m =39.37 inches 1.0 inch = 2.54000000 cm 1 m = 100 cm (centi-meter) = 1000 mm (milli-meter) = 1 000 000 µm (micro-meter) = 1 000 000 000 nm (nano-meter) = 0.001 km (kilo-meter)

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metric prefixes 10 12 =1 000 000 000 000 tera (T) 10 9 =1 000 000 000 giga (G) 10 6 =1 000 000 mega (M) 10 3 = 1 000 kilo (k) 10 -2 = 0.01 centi (c) 10 -3 = 0.001 milli (m) 10 -6 = 0.000 001 micro (µ) 10 -9 = 0.000 000 001 nano (n) 10 -12 =0.000 000 000 001 pico (p)

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Scientific Notation

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scientific notation 38500 = 3.85 x10 4 0.00867 = 8.67x10 -3 458 = 4.58 x10 ? 6700000 = 6.7 x10 ? 80000 = 8 x10 ? 0.00256 = 2.56 x10 ? 0.00000012= 1.2 x10 ?

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scientific notation 3.85 x10 4 = 38500 8.67x10 -3 = 0.00867 4.58 x10 6 = ? 6.7 x10 -4 = ? 8 x10 8 = ? 2.56 x10 -1 = ? 1.2 x10 -6 =

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Significant Figures

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How accurately are measurements made? 10 cm 1324 13.76cm - 10.00cm = 3.76 cm

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Significant Figures How accurately are measurements made? 10 cm 1324 _____cm - _____ cm = _____ cm

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Significant Figures How accurately are measurements made? time= 2.176 s 2.176 ms

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Significant Figures How accurately are calculations made? V=5.67 m/s t= 3.279 s D=V t = ? = 5.67 3.279 s = 18.6 m m s

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Significant Figures How accurately are calculations made? For Multiplication or Division keep # of SF in least Significant value. Round off After Calcs. V=5.67 m/s t= 3.279 s D=V t = ? = 5.67 3.279 s = 18.6 m m s

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Significant Figures How accurately are calculations made? For addition or subtraction keep # of SF in least Significant value. Round off before Calcs. X 1 = 23.4 m X 2 = 1.467 m X 3 = 123.0 m 23.4 m 1.5 m + 123.0 m 147.9 m

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Dimensional Analysis

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Dimensional analysis Is an equation reasonable (Is it wrong) L = L or L 3 = L 3 L/S = L/S If a =12.0 m/s 2, t = 3.0s, and d is distance Which are incorrect?

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Dimensional analysis If a =12.0 m/s 2, t = 3.0s, and d is distance Which are incorrect? d =a t

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Dimensional analysis If a =12.0 m/s 2, t = 3.0s, and d is distance Which are incorrect? d =a t = L T L = L T T ? Not Correct!

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Dimensional analysis If a =12.0 m/s 2, t = 3.0s, and d is distance Which are incorrect? d =a t 2

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Dimensional analysis If a =12.0 m/s 2, t = 3.0s, and d is distance Which are incorrect? d = =L L = L T ? Possibly! a t 2 d =1/2 a t 2 is correct!

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Unit Conversions

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Conversion of Units How many yards are in 45 ft? 45 ft = 15 yd 1 yd = 3 ft

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Conversion of Units How many yards are in 45 ft? 45 ft = 15 yd 1 yd = 3 ft 1 yd 45 ft 3 ft = 15 yd

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Conversion of Units How many centimeters are in 2.50 kilometer? Write down known value draw a line to separate numerator from denominator use a unit factor conversion to go from one unit to next use unit analysis to keep track of units

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Conversion of Units How many centimeters are in 2.50 kilometer? 2.50 km

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Conversion of Units How many centimeters are in 2.50 kilometer? 2.50 km 1000m 1.00 km

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Conversion of Units How many centimeters are in 2.50 kilometer? 2.50 km 1000m 1.00 km 100 cm 1.00m = 2.50x10 5 cm

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Conversion of Units How many cm 3 are in 300 in 3 kilometer? 300 in3

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Conversion of Units How many cm 3 are in 300 in 3 ? 300 in 3 (1.00 in) 3 (2.54 cm) 3

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Conversion of Units How many cm 3 are in 300.0 in 3 kilometer? 300.0 in 3 1.00 in 3 16.39 cm 3 = 4916 cm 3

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Conversion of Units Convert 60 mi/hr to ft/s. 60 mi hr

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Conversion of Units Convert 60 mi/hr to ft/s. 60 mi hr 5280 ft 1 hr 3600 s 1.00 mi

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Conversion of Units Convert 60 mi/hr to ft/s. 60 mi hr 5280 ft 1 hr 3600 s 1.00 mi =88 ft/s

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Conversion Fun Ratio of an igloo's circumference to its diameter = Eskimo Pi 2000 pounds of Chinese soup = Won ton 1 millionth of a mouthwash = 1 microscope

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Conversion Fun Time it takes to sail 220 yards at 1 nautical mile per hour =Knot-furlong 365.25 days of drinking low-calorie beer because it's less filling = 1lite year 16.5 feet in the Twilight Zone = 1 Rod Serling

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Conversion Fun 1,000,000 aches = 1 megahertz Weight an evangelist carries with God = 1 billigram Basic unit of laryngitis = 1 hoarsepower Shortest distance between two jokes = A straight line

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Conversion Fun 453.6 graham crackers = 1 pound cake 1 million microphones = 1 megaphone 1 million bicycles = 2 megacycles 365.25 days = 1 unicycle 2000 mockingbirds = two kilomockingbirds

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Conversion Fun 10 rations = 1 decoration 10 millipedes = 1 centipede 3 1/3 tridents = 1 decadent 10 monologs = 5 dialogs 5 dialogs = 1 decalog 2 monograms = 1 diagram 8 nickels = 2 paradigms 2 wharves = 1 paradox 100 Senators = Not 1 decision

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