 Quantum Lower Bound for the Collision Problem Scott Aaronson 1/10/2002 quant-ph/0111102 I was born at the Big Bang. Cool! We have the same birthday.

Presentation on theme: "Quantum Lower Bound for the Collision Problem Scott Aaronson 1/10/2002 quant-ph/0111102 I was born at the Big Bang. Cool! We have the same birthday."— Presentation transcript:

Quantum Lower Bound for the Collision Problem Scott Aaronson 1/10/2002 quant-ph/0111102 I was born at the Big Bang. Cool! We have the same birthday.

Collision Problem Given Promised: (1) X is one-to-one (permutation) or (2) X is two-to-one Problem: Decide which w.h.p., using few queries to the x i Randomized alg: ( n)

One-to-OneTwo-to-One

Result Any quantum algorithm for the collision problem uses (n 1/5 ) queries Previously no lower bound better than (1) Shi improved to (n 1/4 ) (n 1/3 ) when |range| >> n

Implications 1.No polytime blackbox algorithms for –graph isomorphism –nonabelian hidden subgroup –breaking cryptographic hash functions

Implications 2. Dynamical quantum theories cant be simulated in BQP, relative to oracle Define joint distribution over values of observable at times t 1, t 2, etc. (I.e. classical history) Given polytime quantum algorithm and set of sampling points, how hard to sample from this distribution?

How to Find a Collision in O(1) Queries If Your Memory Is Perfect 1.Prepare and observe 2 nd register If X is 2-1, obtain (|i +|j )/ 2 with x i =x j 2.Sample 3. Hadamard every bit, and sample again 4. Hadamard every bit again (returning to (|i +|j )/ 2), and sample again Which basis state (|i or |j ) were you in after Step 2? After Step 4?

Implications 3. |x |f(x) oracles (Kashefi et al. 2001) more powerful than |x |x |f(x) Requires (n 1/7 ) lower bound for set comparison problem: given sequences x 1 …x n and y 1 …y n, decide whether {x 1,…,x n }={y 1,…,y n } or |{x 1,…,x n,y 1,…,y n }|>1.1n Can improve to (n 1/6 ) using ideas of Shi

Quantum Query Model State after t queries: : workbits i: index to query z: output Query: |,i,z | x i,i,z Arbitrary unitaries that dont depend on X By end:

Brassard-Høyer-Tapp (1998) (n 1/3 ) quantum alg for collision problem n 1/3 x i s, queried classically, sorted for fast lookup Grovers algorithm over n 2/3 x i s Do I collide with any of the pink x i s?

Lower Bound: Main Ideas P(X) [0,1], even for g-1 inputs X with g>2. Surprisingly strong constraint. Take uniform dist. over g-1 inputs P becomes poly in g of deg 2T. Algebraic magic! Use approximation theory to show T large

Lemma (follows Beals et al. 1998): Let (x i,h)=1 if x i =h, 0 otherwise. Then P(X) is poly of deg 2T over the (x i,h). Proof: Let t,X,,i,z = amplitude of |,i,z after t queries. t,X,,i,z is poly of deg t, by induction. Base case (t=0) trivial. Unitaries cant increase degree. Query replaces t,X,,i,z by

Input Distribution D(g): Uniform distribution over g-1 inputs Technicality: g might not divide n But assume for simplicity that it does Let

Monomials of P(X) I(X) = product of r variables (x i,h) Let Then for some I, Claim: If T=O( n) then P(g) is a polynomial of degree 2T in g for integers 1 g n.

Calculating (I,g): #1 Range of I: Y.w=|Y|. (I,g) = 0 unless Y S (range of X) So since

Calculating (I,g): #2 Given an S containing Y, # of g-1 inputs of size n: n!/(g!) n/g Let {y 1,…,y w } be distinct values in Y –r i = # of times y i appears in Y –r 1 + … + r w = r # of g-1 inputs X with range S s.t. I(X)=1:

Becomes ~polynomial(g) Polynomial in g of degree w + (r-w) = r 2T

Markovs Inequality Let P(x) be a poly with b 1 P(x) b 2 for all a 1 x a 2 and |dP(x*)/dx| c for some a 1 x* a 2. Then Long Short Large derivative

Lower Bound 0 P(g) 1 for all 0 g n P(1) 1/10 and P(2) 9/10 So dP/dg 4/5 somewhere (n 1/4 ) lower bound would follow if g always divided n

How to Handle n mod g 0: Sketch Choose N slightly larger than n such that g divides N Choose g-1 function on {1,…,N} u.a.r, then subfunction of size n Acceptance prob. close to bivariate polynomial in g,N for all g|N s.t.

(continued) Restrict gs range to [1,G]; then (g,N) points with g|N are plentiful, so P is bounded P has large derivative somewhere in either the g or N directions Lower bound obtained when G=n 2/5 :

Large derivative between 1-1 and 2-1 Lots of points at which g|N so P is bounded

Shis Improvement to (n 1/4 ) Choose N n s.t. g divides N, instead of N n If basis state | queries an undefined x i, | drops out of the universe Result: Final state vector has norm in [0,1] Still OK! P(g,N) is exactly polynomial in (g,N); so gs range need not be restricted to [1,n 2/5 ]

Shis Improvement to (n 1/3 ) For functions with range {1,…,3n/2} Uses Paturis inequality: if 0 p(x) 1 for 0 x n and p( )= (1)

Download ppt "Quantum Lower Bound for the Collision Problem Scott Aaronson 1/10/2002 quant-ph/0111102 I was born at the Big Bang. Cool! We have the same birthday."

Similar presentations