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Ocean Circulation and Structure. Fig. 10-14, p. 271 Major ocean circulation Gyres: clockwise in Northern Hemisphere and counter clockwise in southern.

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Presentation on theme: "Ocean Circulation and Structure. Fig. 10-14, p. 271 Major ocean circulation Gyres: clockwise in Northern Hemisphere and counter clockwise in southern."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ocean Circulation and Structure

2 Fig , p. 271 Major ocean circulation Gyres: clockwise in Northern Hemisphere and counter clockwise in southern hemisphere

3 Gyres

4 Table 10-1, p. 271 Know the currents in the red boxes.

5 Fig , p. 272 Gulf stream is a western boundary current

6 Florida Current

7 EOS (American Geophysical Union) Volume 92 number 3 18 JANUARY 2011 pages 21–28

8 EOS (American Geophysical Union) Volume 92 number 3 18 JANUARY 2011 pages 21–28

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13 Fig , p. 273 Upwelling of cold nutrient rich water

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15 Fig , p. 273 Upwelling of cold nutrient rich water is a result of the Ekman Spiral. The prevailing winds, frictional drag, and the coriolis force all work together to given an average surface transport of ocean waters in a direction 90 degrees to the right in NH (left for SH) from surface winds

16 Fig , p. 274 Upwelling bring cool nutrient rich waters to the surface.

17 The Gulf stream is considered to be a western boundary current. It is relatively narrow and fast. (it is found on the western boundary of the Atlantic ocean) The California current is considered to be a eastern boundary current. It is relatively wide and slow moving. (it is found on the eastern boundary of the Pacific ocean)

18 Why western boundary currents are fast and tight.

19 Vertical Structure Know what the surface zone and thermocline are.

20 CTD instrument Conductivity, Temperature, Depth Each time one goes down 10 meters in the ocean the pressure increases by 1 Atmosphere (1 Bar). 1.0 decibars=1.0 meter

21 Circle the best choices. Temperature normally (increases/ decreases) with depth. Salinity normally (increases/ decreases) with depth. Density normally (increases/ decreases) with depth.

22 Circle the best choices. Temperature normally (increases/ decreases) with depth. Salinity normally (increases/ decreases) with depth. Density normally (increases/ decreases) with depth.

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24 Many of the world's largest ocean trenches are located along the "Ring of Fire," an arc of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean that denotes convergent plates margins (Fig. 3).

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26 Thermal Haline Circulation Ocean downwelling driven by cold salty water of North Atlantic

27 Ocean temperature and salinity combine to determine the density of sea water. Cold salty water is very dense and sinks. Salinity is controlled by the difference between evaporation and precipitation as well as fresh water discharge from rivers and glacial melt.

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29 Positive feedback for ocean salinity

30 Ocean salinity is typically around 35 parts per thousand 35 % 0 and made up primarily of sodium chloride (table salt).

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32 Atlantic is saltier than the Pacific

33 The mediterranean outflow contributes significantly to the salinity of the Atlantic. The mediterranean has become saltier in recent times as more of the fresh water feeding it is used up before reaching the mediterranean.

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36 NADW North Atlantic Deep water AABW Antarctic Bottom Water

37 Near Bottom 14 C % o Larger differences between surface water and deep water suggest older water. These water age estimates suggest that the north Atlantic is the primary driver of the global oceanic conveyor belt.

38 Ocean temperature and salinity combine to determine the density of sea water. Cold salty water is very dense and sinks. Salinity is controlled by the difference between evaporation and precipitation as well as fresh water discharge from rivers and glacial melt.

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40 Change in the position of continents over the past 200 million years (or more) has influenced global oceanic circulation and global climate.


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