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Introductory Climate Modeling Presented by Dr. Robert MacKay Clark College physics and meteorology

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Earth in space See the first 4 videos at: These are a very nice introduction to radiation from Earth and Sun.

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Earth in space The rate of Solar energy absorption by Earth is R 2 *(1- )So where R is Earths radius is the mean planetary albedo So is the solar constant ~1365 W/m 2 The mean emission rate for terrestrial (longwave) radiation is R 2 * T 4 where =5.67x10-8 W/m 2 /K 4 T is Earths mean annual temperature

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Earth in space Setting absorption equal to emission gives R 2 *(1- )So = R 2 * T 4 or This is about 33 K lower than Earths mean surface temperature of 288 K

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Adding an atmosphere

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A flat earth with an atmosphere that absorbs no solar radiation but absorbs all long- wave radiation coming from Earths surface. Both the earths surface and the atmosphere are assumed to be black bodies for longwave radiation. The atmosphere emits radiant energy equally towards and awy from Earths surface.

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This is about 15 K higher than Earths mean surface temperature of 288 K S

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From K. Trenberth, J. Fasullo, and J. Kiehl, EARTHS GLOBAL ENERGY BUDGET BAMS 2009

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Atmosphere absorbs a fraction,,of the total solar radiation absorbed by the planet Atmosphere absorbs a fraction, of all long-wave radiation coming from Earths surface. Through Kirchoffs radiation law the emissivity of the atmosphere for long-wave radiation equals its absorptivity. Earths surface is assumed to be a black bodies for long-wave radiation. The atmosphere emits radiant energy equally towards and away from Earths surface. S

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A flat earth with an atmosphere that absorbs no solar radiation but absorbs all long-wave radiation coming from Earths surface. Both the earths surface and the atmosphere are assumed to be black bodies for longwave radiation. The atmosphere emits radiant energy equally towards and awy from Earths surface. Estimating =0.29 and =0.9 from Khiel and Trenberth Energy Balance diagram

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A flat earth with an atmosphere that absorbs no solar radiation but absorbs all long-wave radiation coming from Earths surface. Both the earths surface and the atmosphere are assumed to be black bodies for longwave radiation. The atmosphere emits radiant energy equally towards and awy from Earths surface. Estimating =0.29 and =0.9 from Khiel and Trenberth Energy Balance diagram This is about 3.5 K lower than Earths mean surface temperature of 288 K

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Thermal Inertia Of Oceans I Net radiation intensity (W/m 2 ) A Area of surface d depth of ocean mixed layer C specific heat capacity of oceans the density of water If d=100 m MacKay and Ko 1997

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Stella version:

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Feedbacks

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Diagram from VUE. Visual Understanding environment

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Conclusions Simple conceptual climate models can help students learn about climate modeling and the climate system. Climate models of all sort provide Interactive engagement opportunities for students. Causal loop diagrams offer an excellent visual communication tool for both student and instructor.

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