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Causal Loop Diagrams. Exponential growth of a bank account. The two positive connections between Bank balance and interest added for a positive feedback.

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Causal Loop Diagrams

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**Exponential growth of a bank account**

Exponential growth of a bank account. The two positive connections between Bank balance and interest added for a positive feedback loop.

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Causal Loop Diagrams

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**Earth’s Energy Balance**

Earth’s Energy Balance. More absorbed sunlight increases Earth’s temperature. A warmer Earth sends off more heat radiation (a.k.a. longwave, infrared, or terrestrial) to space keeping our planet from getting too hot. Earth’s albedo is the fraction of sunlight reflected back into space without being absorbed.

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**Connections (+ or - ??) Remember use nouns Absorbed Sunlight**

Earth’s Mean Temperature Planetary albedo Earth’s Mean Temperature Earth’s Mean Temperature Emitted Infrared Cloud Cover Planetary albedo Planetary albedo snow Cover Volcanic aerosol Planetary albedo Earth’s Mean Temperature Water Vapor Earth’s Mean Temperature CO2 Knowing the “sense” of connections between two system components is essential to understanding overall system behavior. If when the first increases the second also increases the connection is positive. If when the first increases the second also decreases the connection is negative.

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**Connections (+ or - ??) Answers**

Absorbed Sunlight Earth’s Mean Temperature - Planetary albedo Earth’s Mean Temperature - Earth’s Mean Temperature Emitted Infrared + or - Earth’s Mean Temperature Cloud Cover + Planetary albedo snow Cover - Earth’s Mean Temperature Volcanic aerosol + Earth’s Mean Temperature Water Vapor + Earth’s Mean Temperature CO2 Remember use nouns

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**Example Draw a causal loop diagram to describe the following:**

The sun becomes brighter causing Earth to warm. As the Earth warms it gives off more longwave radiation until it settles into a new equilibrium temperature.

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**Example - Draw a causal loop diagram to describe the following:**

The sun becomes brighter causing Earth to warm to a new equilibrium temperature. sunlight Earth’s mean Temperature + - - + Emitted infrared energy

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Air Resistance

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**Connections (+ or - ??) Remember use nouns Size (area) of car**

Air resistance force Air resistance force Air temperature Speed of car Air resistance force Remember use nouns

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Air resistance Net downward Force weight

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**Connections (+ or - ??) Remember use nouns Size of parachuet**

Air resistance force Altitude Air resistance force Air resistance force Jumper’s speed Size of parachuet Net downward force Altitude Net downward force Jumper’s speed Net downward force Remember use nouns

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Draw a causal loop diagram to describe the following: As the sky diver falls she travels faster and faster until reaching a terminal velocity. Include diver’s speed, air resistance and net downward force in your diagram.

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**Gas pedal depression car’s speed**

MPH above speed limit car’s speed

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Home Heating

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Home Heating

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Home Heating

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PTYS 214 – Spring 2011 Homework #5 available for download at the class website DUE Thursday, Feb. 24 Reminder: Extra Credit Presentations (up to 10pts)

PTYS 214 – Spring 2011 Homework #5 available for download at the class website DUE Thursday, Feb. 24 Reminder: Extra Credit Presentations (up to 10pts)

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