4 Earth’s Energy Balance Earth’s Energy Balance. More absorbed sunlight increases Earth’s temperature. A warmer Earth sends off more heat radiation (a.k.a. longwave, infrared, or terrestrial) to space keeping our planet from getting too hot.Earth’s albedo is the fraction of sunlight reflected back into space without being absorbed.
5 Connections (+ or - ??) Remember use nouns Absorbed Sunlight Earth’s Mean TemperaturePlanetary albedoEarth’s Mean TemperatureEarth’s Mean TemperatureEmitted InfraredCloud CoverPlanetary albedoPlanetary albedosnow CoverVolcanic aerosolPlanetary albedoEarth’s Mean TemperatureWater VaporEarth’s Mean TemperatureCO2Knowing the “sense” of connections between two system components is essential to understanding overall system behavior.If when the first increases the second also increases the connection is positive.If when the first increases the second also decreases the connection is negative.
6 Connections (+ or - ??) Answers Absorbed SunlightEarth’s Mean Temperature-Planetary albedoEarth’s Mean Temperature-Earth’s Mean TemperatureEmitted Infrared+ or-Earth’s Mean TemperatureCloud Cover+Planetary albedosnow Cover-Earth’s Mean TemperatureVolcanic aerosol+Earth’s Mean TemperatureWater Vapor+Earth’s Mean TemperatureCO2Remember use nouns
7 Example Draw a causal loop diagram to describe the following: The sun becomes brighter causing Earth to warm. As the Earth warms it gives off more longwave radiation until it settles into a new equilibrium temperature.
8 Example - Draw a causal loop diagram to describe the following: The sun becomes brighter causing Earth to warm to a new equilibrium temperature.sunlightEarth’s mean Temperature+--+Emitted infrared energy
12 Connections (+ or - ??) Remember use nouns Size of parachuet Air resistance forceAltitudeAir resistance forceAir resistance forceJumper’s speedSize of parachuetNet downward forceAltitudeNet downward forceJumper’s speedNet downward forceRemember use nouns
13 Draw a causal loop diagram to describe the following: As the sky diver falls she travels faster and faster until reaching a terminal velocity. Include diver’s speed, air resistance and net downward force in your diagram.