We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byJenna Baird
Modified over 3 years ago
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 21: MUSICAL SOUNDS
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This lecture will help you understand: Noise and Music Musical Sounds Pitch Sound Intensity and Loudness Quality Musical Instruments Fourier Analysis Digital Versatile Discs (DVDs)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Noise and Music Noise corresponds to an irregular vibration of the eardrum produced by some irregular vibration in our surroundings, a jumble of wavelengths and amplitudes. –White noise is a mixture of a variety of frequencies of sound.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Noise and Music Music is the art of sound and has a different character. Musical sounds have periodic tones–or musical notes. The line that separates music and noise can be thin and subjective.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Musical Sounds Musical tone Three characteristics: –Pitch determined by frequency of sound waves as received by the ear determined by fundamental frequency, lowest frequency –Intensity determines the perceived loudness of sound
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Musical Sounds Musical tone Three characteristics (continued): –Quality determined by prominence of the harmonics determined by presence and relative intensity of the various partials
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pitch Music is organized on many different levels. Most noticeable are musical notes. Each note has its own pitch. We can describe pitch by frequency. –Rapid vibrations of the sound source (high frequency) produce sound of a high pitch. –Slow vibrations (low frequency) produce a low pitch.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pitch Musicians give different pitches different letter names: A, B, C, D, E, F, G. –Notes A through G are all notes within one octave. –Multiply the frequency on any note by 2, and you have the same note at a higher pitch in the next octave. –A piano keyboard covers a little more than seven octaves.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pitch Different musical notes are obtained by changing the frequency of the vibrating sound source. This is usually done by altering the size, the tightness, or the mass of the vibrating object.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pitch High-pitched sounds used in music are most often less than 4000 Hz, but the average human ear can hear sounds with frequencies up to 18,000 Hz. –Some people and most dogs can hear tones of higher pitch than this. –The upper limit of hearing in people gets lower as they grow older. –A high-pitched sound is often inaudible to an older person and yet may be clearly heard by a younger one.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sound Intensity and Loudness The intensity of sound depends on the amplitude of pressure variations within the sound wave. The human ear responds to intensities covering the enormous range from 10 – 12 W/m 2 (the threshold of hearing) to more than 1 W/m 2 (the threshold of pain).
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sound Intensity and Loudness Because the range is so great, intensities are scaled by factors of 10, with the barely audible 10 –12 W/m 2 as a reference intensity called 0 bel (a unit named after Alexander Bell). A sound 10 times more intense has an intensity of 1 bel (W/m 2 ) or 10 decibels (dB)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sound Intensity and Loudness Sound intensity is a purely objective and physical attribute of a sound wave, and it can be measured by various acoustical instruments. Loudness is a physiological sensation. –The ear senses some frequencies much better than others. –A 3500-Hz sound at 80 decibels sounds about twice as loud to most people as a 125-Hz sound at 80 decibels. –Humans are more sensitive to the 3500-Hz range of frequencies.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quality We have no trouble distinguishing between the tone from a piano and a tone of the same pitch from a clarinet. Each of these tones has a characteristic sound that differs in quality, the color of a tone timbre. Timbre describes all of the aspects of a musical sound other than pitch, loudness, or length of tone.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quality Most musical sounds are composed of a superposition of many tones differing in frequency. The various tones are called partial tones, or simply partials. The lowest frequency, called the fundamental frequency, determines the pitch of the note. A partial tone whose frequency is a whole-number multiple of the fundamental frequency is called a harmonic. A composite vibration of the fundamental mode and the third harmonic is shown in the figure.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quality The quality of a tone is determined by the presence and relative intensity of the various partials. The sound produced by a certain tone from the piano and a clarinet of the same pitch have different qualities that the ear can recognize because their partials are different. A pair of tones of the same pitch with different qualities have either different partials or a difference in the relative intensity of the partials.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 21: MUSICAL SOUNDS Noise and Music Musical Sounds Pitch Sound Intensity and Loudness.
Lecture Outline Chapter 21: Musical Sounds © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 21: MUSICAL SOUNDS.
Chapter 21 Musical Sounds. 1. NOISE VERSUS MUSIC Wham - Noise and Wave Forms Pitch Pitch Loudness Loudness Quality Quality Three characteristics of a.
Note on Posted Slides These are the slides that I intended to show in class on Mon. Mar. 11, They contain important ideas and questions from your.
Dr. Jie ZouPHY Chapter 21 Musical Sound Noise corresponds to an irregular vibration of the eardrum produced by some irregular vibration. The sound.
CH. 21 Musical Sounds. Musical Tones have three main characteristics 1)Pitch 2) Loudness 3)Quality.
Chapter 21 Musical Sounds Noise Versus Music Pitch Pitch Loudness Loudness Quality Quality.
Chapter 21 Musical Sounds.
Chapter 16: Sound 16-3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels 16-4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns 16-5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition.
Day 6 Exam I is on Thursday. Be sure to attend lab this week.
Preview Objectives The Production of Sound Waves Frequency of Sound Waves The Doppler Effect Chapter 12 Section 1 Sound Waves.
Chp 13 Sound and Music.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture 1 – Waves & Sound c) Sound.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Conceptual Physics 11 th Edition Chapter 20: SOUND.
Chapter 15 Sounds Properties and Detection of Sound Importance of Sound.
Physics Mrs. Dimler SOUND. Every sound wave begins with a vibrating object, such as the vibrating prong of a tuning fork. Tuning fork and air molecules.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their.
Identifying Frequencies. Terms: LoudnessPitchTimbre.
Primitive people made sounds not only with their voices, but also with drums, rattles, and whistles. Stringed instruments are at least 3000 years old.
Sound Lecture 5. Goals Understand Standing Waves Gain an understanding of fundamental sound concepts such as intensity and beats Learn about applications.
Chapter 26 Sound & Music Sound …...a longitudinal wave in air caused by a vibrating object.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Preview Objectives The Production of Sound Waves Frequency of Sound Waves The Doppler Effect Chapter 12.
Sound Waves The production of sound from a sound wave begins with a vibrating object.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. PowerPoint ® Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition – Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures.
The Physics Of Sound Why do we hear what we hear?
Sound AP Physics Chapter Characteristics of Sound Vibration and Waves.
Sept. 6/11. - Sound Sounds may be perceived as pleasant or unpleasant. What are these sounds that we hear? What is "sound"? What causes it, and how do.
ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS ACOUSTICS : branch of physics concerned with sound deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of.
Chapter 16: Sound 16-5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition 16-6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats 16-7 Doppler Effect HW problems: Chapter 16:
Standing waves on a string (review) n=1,2,3... Different boundary conditions: Both ends fixed (see above) Both ends free (similar to both ends fixed )
CHAPTER 12 Section 3: Harmonics. Objectives ◦ Differentiate between the harmonic series of open and closed pipes. ◦ Calculate the harmonics of a vibrating.
Chapter 14 Waves and Sound. Chapter 14: Waves and Sound A wave is a disturbance that propagates from one place to another. For example: water waves sound.
Sound and LightSection 1 Properties of Sound 〉 What are the characteristics of sound waves? 〉 Sound waves are caused by vibrations and carry energy through.
Holt Physics Chapter 13 Sound Production of Sound Waves Produced by vibrations of matter. (SciLinks: HF2131, Sound)SciLinks Compression: the region.
SOUND CHAPTER 12. All Sound Has 3 Aspects… 1.Source 2.Energy 3.Detected Sound is Longitudinal Waves (Compression Waves) Sound must have a medium. Sound.
Properties of Sound Neil Freebern. Sound Sound is produced when something vibrates. Vibrations disturb the air, creating variations in air pressure. Variation.
Sound waves and Perception of sound Lecture 8 Pre-reading : §16.3.
Pitch What is pitch? Pitch (as well as loudness) is a subjective characteristic of sound –Some listeners even assign pitch differently depending upon whether.
8.1 Music and Musical Notes It’s important to realize the difference between what is music and noise. Music is sound that originates from a vibrating source.
Chapter 12 Sound. Units of Chapter 12 Characteristics of Sound Intensity of Sound: Decibels The Ear and Its Response; Loudness Sources of Sound: Vibrating.
Sound, Waves, uh yea.. Sound! Come Pitch, loudness, and timbre are all perceived attributes of sound. Pitch is the perceived frequency.
MUSIC NOTES Noise Versus Music What is the difference between noise and music? Answer: The appearance of the waveform. What is the difference between.
Harmonics. Each instrument has a mixture of harmonics at varying intensities Principle of superposition Periodics- Repeating patterns of waveforms.
Sound Vibration and Motion. Sound Waves Sound is an important part of existence for many living things From your everyday experiences, you are already.
Hearing: Physiology and Psychoacoustics 9. The Function of Hearing The basics Nature of sound Anatomy and physiology of the auditory system How we perceive.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.