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EVOLUTION & SPECIATION VOCABULARY REVIEW EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME NATURAL SELECTION - INDIVIDUALS BETTER ADAPTED TO.

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Presentation on theme: "EVOLUTION & SPECIATION VOCABULARY REVIEW EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME NATURAL SELECTION - INDIVIDUALS BETTER ADAPTED TO."— Presentation transcript:

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2 EVOLUTION & SPECIATION

3 VOCABULARY REVIEW EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME EVOLUTION – CHANGE OVER TIME NATURAL SELECTION - INDIVIDUALS BETTER ADAPTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT ARE ABLE TO SURVIVE & REPRODUCE. NATURAL SELECTION - INDIVIDUALS BETTER ADAPTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT ARE ABLE TO SURVIVE & REPRODUCE. –A.K.A. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST

4 NEW VOCABULARY POPULATION – GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS OF SAME SPECIES THAT INTERBREED POPULATION – GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS OF SAME SPECIES THAT INTERBREED GENE POOL – COMMON GROUP OF ALL GENES PRESENT IN A POPULATION GENE POOL – COMMON GROUP OF ALL GENES PRESENT IN A POPULATION

5 Gene Pool Combined genetic info. of all members Allele frequency is # of times alleles occur

6 Variation in Populations 2 processes can lead to this: Mutations - change in DNA sequence Gene Shuffling – from sexual reproduction

7 Genetic Drift changes populations……. Random change in allele frequency causes an allele to become common Random change in allele frequency causes an allele to become common

8 Founder Effect: a cause of genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population Founder Effect: a cause of genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population

9 Gene Flow: genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations (reduces differences between populations) Gene Flow: genetic exchange due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations (reduces differences between populations)

10 Nonrandom mating: inbreeding and assortive mating (both shift frequencies of different genotypes) Nonrandom mating: inbreeding and assortive mating (both shift frequencies of different genotypes)

11 Natural Selection: differential success in reproduction; only form of microevolution that adapts a population to its environment Natural Selection: differential success in reproduction; only form of microevolution that adapts a population to its environment

12 Sexual selection Sexual dimorphism: secondary sex characteristic distinction Sexual dimorphism: secondary sex characteristic distinction Sexual selection: selection towards secondary sex characteristics that leads to sexual dimorphism Sexual selection: selection towards secondary sex characteristics that leads to sexual dimorphism

13 Evolution of Populations Occurs when there is a change in relative frequency of alleles

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19 Phenotype Expression Depends on how many genes control that trait Depends on how many genes control that trait

20 Single-Gene vs. Polygenic Traits Single-Gene: 2 Distinct Phenotypes Polygenic: Many Phenotypes (EG: tongue rolling)

21 Allele Frequencies Natural Selection Single Gene Traits Polygenic Traits Directional Selection Stabilizing Selection Disruptive Selection Genetic Drift

22 Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits Shifts to Shifts to middle range Shifts to Shifts to 2 extremes Shifts to Shifts to 1 extreme

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24 Conditions needed for Genetic Equilibrium

25 SPECIATION THE FORMATION OF NEW SPECIES THE FORMATION OF NEW SPECIES AS NEW SPECIES EVOVLVE, POPULATIONS BECOME REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED AS NEW SPECIES EVOVLVE, POPULATIONS BECOME REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION – MEMEBERS OF 2 POPULATIONS CANNOT INTERBREED & PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING. REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION – MEMEBERS OF 2 POPULATIONS CANNOT INTERBREED & PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING.

26 3 ISOLATING MECHANISMS…….. BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION- CAPABLE OF BREEDING BUT HAVE DIFFERENCES IN COURTSHIP RITUALS (EX. MEADOWLARKS) BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION- CAPABLE OF BREEDING BUT HAVE DIFFERENCES IN COURTSHIP RITUALS (EX. MEADOWLARKS) GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION – SEPARATED BY GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS LIKE RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, OR BODIES OF WATER (EX. SQUIRREL) GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION – SEPARATED BY GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS LIKE RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, OR BODIES OF WATER (EX. SQUIRREL) TEMPORAL ISOLATION – 2 OR MORE SPECIES REPRODUCE AT DIFFERENT TIMES. TEMPORAL ISOLATION – 2 OR MORE SPECIES REPRODUCE AT DIFFERENT TIMES.

27 Table 23.1a

28 Tigon Result of male tiger and female lion mating incaptivity. Offspring are infertile. Separated both geographically and ecologically.

29 Liger Result of male lion and female tiger mating in captivity. Offspring are infertile.

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33 Table 23.1b

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35 Fig. 23.6 Four species of leopard frogs: differ in their mating calls. Hybrids are inviable.

36 These squirrels live on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon. This is an example of allopatric speciation.

37 Hawaiian Honeycreepers FOUNDER SPECIES An example of adaptive radiation – these species all diverged from a common ancestor (founder species)

38 SPECIATION IN DARWINS FINCHES SPECIAITON IN THE GALAPAGOS FINCHES OCCURRED BY: SPECIAITON IN THE GALAPAGOS FINCHES OCCURRED BY: - FOUNDING OF A NEW POPULATION, - GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION which led to - - REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION and CHANGES IN THE NEW POPULATIONS GENE POOL due to COMPETITION.

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41 Evidence of Evolution 1. Fossil Record 2. Geographic Distribution of Living Species 3. Homologous Body structures 4. Similarities in Embryology

42 Evidence of Evolution Fossil Record provides evidence that living things have evolved Fossils show the history of life on earth and how different groups of organisms have changed over time

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46 Rat like common ancestor Mammalia Placental mammals Marsupial Mammals Sugar Glider Flying Squirrel Convergent Evolution and Analogous Structures

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48 Big Question!!! How did life arise on the big blue planet?? How did life arise on the big blue planet?? Scientists attempt to answer this question scientifically. Scientists attempt to answer this question scientifically.

49 Relative Dating versus Absolute Dating

50 Relative Dating Can determine a fossils relative age Can determine a fossils relative age Performed by estimating fossil age compared with that of other fossils Performed by estimating fossil age compared with that of other fossils Drawbacks – provides no info about age in years Drawbacks – provides no info about age in years

51 Absolute dating Can determine the absolute age in numbers Can determine the absolute age in numbers Is performed by radioactive dating – based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes remain Is performed by radioactive dating – based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes remain Drawbacks - part of the fossil is destroyed during the test Drawbacks - part of the fossil is destroyed during the test

52 Carbon-14 Dating

53 Fossil Formation

54 A cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions created the universe 10-20 billion years ago A cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions created the universe 10-20 billion years ago Evidence Evidence it explains why distant galaxies are traveling away from us at great speeds it explains why distant galaxies are traveling away from us at great speeds Cosmic radiation from the explosion can be observed Cosmic radiation from the explosion can be observed The Big Bang theory probably will never be proven; consequentially, leaving a number of tough, unanswered questions. The Big Bang theory probably will never be proven; consequentially, leaving a number of tough, unanswered questions. Big Bang Theory

55 What was early earth like? Earth was Hot!! Earth was Hot!! Little or no oxygen Little or no oxygen Gasses in atmosphere: Gasses in atmosphere: Hydrogen cyanide (poison to you!) Hydrogen cyanide (poison to you!) Hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen sulfide Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide Nitrogen Nitrogen water water

56 So how did the earth get oxygen? Some of that oxygen was generated by photosynthetic cyanobacteria Some of that oxygen was generated by photosynthetic cyanobacteria Some came from the chemical separation of water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen. Some came from the chemical separation of water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen.

57 Oxygen drove some life forms to extinction Oxygen drove some life forms to extinction Others evolved ways of using oxygen for respiration Others evolved ways of using oxygen for respiration

58 How did life begin? Miller and Ureys Experiment Passed sparks through a mixture of hydrogen methane ammonia and water Passed sparks through a mixture of hydrogen methane ammonia and water This produced amino acids – the building blocks of life This produced amino acids – the building blocks of life

59 Millers experiment suggests that lightning could have produced amino acids

60 How can simple amino acids result in life? There are 3 theories 1. Formation of microspheres Large organic molecules can sometimes form tiny proteinoid microspheres Large organic molecules can sometimes form tiny proteinoid microspheres Store and release energy, selectively permeable membranes, may have acquired more characteristics of living cells Store and release energy, selectively permeable membranes, may have acquired more characteristics of living cells

61 2 nd Hypothesis for Life Evolution of RNA to DNA RNA was assembled from simple organic molecules in a primordial soup RNA was assembled from simple organic molecules in a primordial soup RNA was able to replicate itself and eventually form DNA RNA was able to replicate itself and eventually form DNA Not scientifically proven to be possible Not scientifically proven to be possible

62 3 rd Theory of Life Endosymbiotic theory eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by prokaryotic organisms eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by prokaryotic organisms Ancient prokaryotes entered primitive eukaryotic cells and remained there as organelles Ancient prokaryotes entered primitive eukaryotic cells and remained there as organelles


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