Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure and Function I. Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 3. New cells are produced from existing cells 2. Cells are the basic."— Presentation transcript:
Cell Structure and Function I
Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 3. New cells are produced from existing cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
Cell Exploration Light Microscopes –Living organisms can be seen –Light limits the resolution so extremely small things like proteins and viruses cannot be observed
Cell Exploration High resolution video technology –Allows scientists to see time elapsed movies of cells as the grow, divide and develop. –http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis. htmhttp://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis. htm
Cell Exploration Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs ) –Can see more detain and extremely small structures –Beams of electrons must pass through ultra-thin sliced samples therefore no living things can be seen
Cell Exploration Scanning Electron Microscope (SEMs) –Beams of electrons scanned over the surface of a specimen –Produces a 3D image –Samples must be chemically preserved and removed of all water so no living things can be seen.
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes (bacteria) have no nucleus and very few organelles. DNA is not contained Eukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants and animals) larger,more complex,DNA is inside the nucleus
Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells Both plant and animal cells contain a variety of organelles. Some structures are specific to either plant cells or animal cells only. –Only plant cells contain: Cell wall Chloroplasts Large central vacuoles –Only animal cells contain: Centrioles
Smooth ER vs. Rough ER Rough ER - ribosomes on the ER make proteins, the ER modifies the proteins Smooth ER - makes lipids
Mitochondria vs. Chloroplasts Mitochondria make energy from chemicals (food molecules) Chloroplasts make energy from light through photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments Maintains shape Involved in cell movement
ProkaryotesEukaryotes Cell membrane Contain DNA Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton DNA is free floating
Cell Structure and Function II
Cell Wall Provides support and protection for plant cell walls Made of porous cellulose so it does not regulate what enters and leaves
Cell Membrane Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and provides support and protection Structure – lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
Diffusion through Cell Boundaries Particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration No energy is required
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Is this really Osmosis???
Isotonic "ISO" means the same Concentration of solutes (salts) is the same inside and outside of cell. Water flows in and out in equal amounts No effect on cell
Hypertonic Hyper means more Concentration of solutes is more outside the cell than inside Water flows out of cell The cell shrivels and may die. This is why it is dangerous to drink sea water This is also why "salting fields" was a common tactic during war, it would kill the crops in the field, thus causing food shortages.
Hypotonic "HYPO" means less Concentration of solutes is less outside the cell than in. Water flows in The cell swell with water and becomes turgid
Active Transport Carried our by protein pumps found in the membrane Energy is required
Facilitated Diffusion Molecules move through protein channels. No energy required
Endocytosis Cell takes material into cell by infolding of the cell membrane Phagocytosis – eating – cell engulfs large particles Pinocytosis – drinking – cell takes in liquid animation/animation.htm
Exocytosis Cell releases large amounts of material
Cell Specialization The cells in multicellular organisms can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.
Levels of Biological Organization Organism Organ system Organ Tissue Cell Organelle DNA Atoms