2Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 3. New cells are produced from existing cells2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
3Cell Exploration Light Microscopes Living organisms can be seen Light limits the resolution so extremely small things like proteins and viruses cannot be observed
4Cell Exploration High resolution video technology Allows scientists to see time elapsed movies of cells as the grow, divide and develop.
5Cell Exploration Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs) Can see more detain and extremely small structuresBeams of electrons must pass through ultra-thin sliced samples therefore no living things can be seen
6Cell Exploration Scanning Electron Microscope (SEMs) Beams of electrons scanned over the surface of a specimenProduces a 3D imageSamples must be chemically preserved and removed of all water so no living things can be seen.
7Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes (bacteria) have no nucleus and very few organelles. DNA is not containedEukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants and animals) larger,more complex,DNA is inside the nucleus
8Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells Both plant and animal cells contain a variety of organelles. Some structures are specific to either plant cells or animal cells only.Only plant cells contain:Cell wallChloroplastsLarge central vacuolesOnly animal cells contain:Centrioles
21Isotonic "ISO" means the same Concentration of solutes (salts) is the same inside and outside of cell.Water flows in and out in equal amountsNo effect on cell
22Hypertonic “Hyper” means more Concentration of solutes is more outside the cell than insideWater flows out of cellThe cell shrivels and may die.This is why it is dangerous to drink sea waterThis is also why "salting fields" was a common tactic during war, it would kill the crops in the field, thus causing food shortages.
23Hypotonic "HYPO" means less Concentration of solutes is less outside the cell than in.Water flows inThe cell swell with water and becomes “turgid”
24Active Transport Carried our by protein pumps found in the membrane Energy is required
25Facilitated Diffusion Molecules move through protein channels.No energy required
26EndocytosisCell takes material into cell by infolding of the cell membranePhagocytosis – eating – cell engulfs large particlesPinocytosis – drinking – cell takes in liquidanimation/animation.htm
27ExocytosisCell releases largeamounts of material
28Cell SpecializationThe cells in multicellular organisms can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.
29Levels of Biological Organization OrganismOrgan systemOrganTissueCellOrganelleDNAAtoms