Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dont let this happen to you!!. HOOK EM HORNS!!!

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dont let this happen to you!!. HOOK EM HORNS!!!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dont let this happen to you!!

2 HOOK EM HORNS!!!

3

4 MUTATIONS Changes in DNA that affect genetic information

5 Gene Mutations Point Mutations – changes in one or a few nucleotides Point Mutations – changes in one or a few nucleotides Substitution Substitution THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT HAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT HAT ATE THE RAT Insertion Insertion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT XLW ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT XLW ATE THE RAT Deletion Deletion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT ATE THE RAT

6 Gene Mutations Frameshift Mutations – shifts the reading frame of the genetic message so that the protein may not be able to perform its function. Frameshift Mutations – shifts the reading frame of the genetic message so that the protein may not be able to perform its function. Insertion Insertion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT HCA TAT ETH ERA T THE FAT HCA TAT ETH ERA T Deletion Deletion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT TEF ATC ATA TET GER AT TEF ATC ATA TET GER AT H H

7 Chromosome Mutations Changes in number and structure of entire chromosomes Changes in number and structure of entire chromosomes Original Chromosome ABC * DEF Original Chromosome ABC * DEF DeletionAC * DEF DeletionAC * DEF DuplicationABBC * DEF DuplicationABBC * DEF InversionAED * CBF InversionAED * CBF TranslocationABC * JKL TranslocationABC * JKL GHI * DEF

8 Significance of Mutations Most are neutralMost are neutral Eye colorEye color Birth marksBirth marks Some are harmfulSome are harmful Sickle Cell AnemiaSickle Cell Anemia Down SyndromeDown Syndrome Some are beneficialSome are beneficial Sickle Cell Anemia to MalariaSickle Cell Anemia to Malaria Immunity to HIVImmunity to HIV

9 What Causes Mutations? There are two ways in which DNA can become mutated: There are two ways in which DNA can become mutated: Mutations can be inherited. Mutations can be inherited. Parent to child Parent to child Mutations can be acquired. Mutations can be acquired. Environmental damage Environmental damage Mistakes when DNA is copied Mistakes when DNA is copied

10 Chromosome Mutations Down Syndrome Down Syndrome Chromosome 21 does not separate correctly. Chromosome 21 does not separate correctly. They have 47 chromosomes in stead of 46. They have 47 chromosomes in stead of 46. Children with Down Syndrome develop slower, may have heart and stomach illnesses and vary greatly in their degree of inteligence. Children with Down Syndrome develop slower, may have heart and stomach illnesses and vary greatly in their degree of inteligence.

11 Chromosome Mutations Cri-du-chat Cri-du-chat Deletion of material on 5 th chromosome Deletion of material on 5 th chromosome Characterized by the cat-like cry made by cri-du-chat babies Characterized by the cat-like cry made by cri-du-chat babies Varied levels of metal handicaps Varied levels of metal handicaps

12 Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Klinefelters Syndrome Klinefelters Syndrome XXY, XXYY, XXXY XXY, XXYY, XXXY Male Male Sterility Sterility Small testicles Small testicles Breast enlargement Breast enlargement

13 Sex Chromosome Abnormalities XYY Syndrome XYY Syndrome Normal male traits Normal male traits Often tall and thin Often tall and thin Associated with antisocial and behavioral problems Associated with antisocial and behavioral problems

14 Sex Chromosome Mutations Turners Syndrome Turners Syndrome X Female Female sex organs don't mature at adolescence sex organs don't mature at adolescence sterility sterility short stature short stature

15 Sex Chromosome Mutations XXX XXX Trisomy X Trisomy X Female Female Little or no visible differences Little or no visible differences tall stature tall stature learning disabilities learning disabilities limited fertility limited fertility

16

17 Some mutations even make it on SNL!

18


Download ppt "Dont let this happen to you!!. HOOK EM HORNS!!!"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google