4In Eastern philosophy consciousness is connected to a deeper reality .In Eastern philosophy consciousness is connected to a deeper realityBING!!! BING!!!BING!!! BING!!!BING!!! BING!!!BING!!! BING!!!BING!!! BING!!!
17BING!! Neuroscientists Baars, Edelman/Tononi, Changeux/Dehaene, Crick/Koch castthalamo-cortical oscillations asGlobal workspace for consciousnessBottom-up, top-down,hierarchical, based onsensory inputs, arousalBING!!
18But consciousness also internally-generated: mind wandering, daydreaming, memories, meditationThe Brain's Dark Energy/Default networkRaichle (2006) Science 314: 1249 – 1250, 2006)BING!!!BING!!
19Brain functions (cognition) Sensory perceptionControl of behaviorLearning, MemoryAttention, SleepLanguageIntelligenceVisceral/sexualmay be either non-conscious(Chalmers’ easy problems, zombie modes, auto-pilot)
20non-conscious (zombie/auto-pilot) or conscious Brain functions (cognition)Sensory perceptionControl of behaviorLearning, MemoryAttention, SleepLanguageIntelligenceVisceral, Sexualnon-conscious (zombie/auto-pilot)or consciousBing
21Brain functions (cognition) Sensory perceptionControl of behaviorLearning, MemoryAttention, SleepLanguageIntelligenceVisceral, SexualBingaccompanied by gamma synchrony EEG
22Brain functions (cognition) Sensory perceptionControl of behaviorLearning, MemoryAttention, SleepLanguageIntelligenceVisceral, SexualBingmoving through the brain
23Brain functions (cognition) Sensory perceptionControl of behaviorLearning, MemoryAttention, SleepLanguageIntelligenceVisceral, SexualBingBingBing
24Brain functions (cognition) Sensory perceptionControl of behaviorLearning, MemoryAttention, SleepLanguageIntelligenceVisceral, SexualBingBingBing
25Gamma synchrony in olfactory bulb cortex correlates with conscious smell .J Neuroscience.26(8): , 2006Neuron46(5):761-72, 2005BING!!
26Neuroscience.159(4): , 2009Brain Research.1156:46-58, 2007Conscious feelings of pleasure and reward correlate gamma synchrony in dopaminergic nucleus accumbensBING!!
27EEG is divided intofrequency bands:Delta (< 4 Hz)Theta (4 to 8 Hz)Alpha (8 to 12 Hz)Beta (13 to 30 Hz)Gamma (> 30 Hz)Coherence in gamma synchronyamong different brain regions isthe best correlate of consciousnessThe best neurophysiologicalcorrelate of consciousness(NCC) comes from EEG,voltage fluctuations recordedfrom scalp or brain surface.
29“. consciousness itself is only momentary. a sequence of moments “... consciousness itself is only momentary a sequence of moments..causing each other…each moment of consciousness only lasts for a very short period of time. A very advanced meditator…is able to detect the transition from moment to moment…They are..1/64th of the snap of a finger.”John DunneEmory University
30Buddhist writings quantify the frequency of conscious moments Buddhist writings quantify the frequency of conscious moments. The Saarvastivaadins (VonRospatt, 1995) describe 6,480,000 moments in 24 hours (one moment per 13.3 seconds = 75 Hz), and Chinese Buddhists as 50 ‘thoughts’ per second (50 Hz). Gamma synchrony EEG is 30 to 90 Hz.
31DendritesCell body Axonal firing, or ‘spike’‘ Hodgkin-Huxley neuron’ leads to integrate-and-fire
69Four features of the quantum world: Particles can exist in multiple possible states orlocations simultaneously: “superposition”2) Unified particles which become separated remain connected over distance and time: “quantum entanglement”3) Multiple particles can condense into one unified entity: “quantum coherence”4) Precise location AND momentum of quantumparticle are indeterminate: “uncertainty”
70Quantum superposition In the quantum world, particles/objects…. Behave like waves……Exist in two or more locations or states simultaneously (quantum superposition),Electron spin upand spin down
71In the quantum world, particles/objects…. Quantum entanglementIn the quantum world, particles/objects….2) Remain intimately connected when spatially separated(quantum entanglement – Einstein’s “spooky action at a distance”).
72In the quantum world, particles/objects…. Quantum coherenceIn the quantum world, particles/objects….3) Condense into unitary objects (quantum coherence, Bose-Einstein condensation)governed by one wave function. If one component is perturbed, others “feel it”.
73Quantum effects are used in quantum information technology Quantum computers – Information represented as “bits” of 1 or 0 as in conventionalcomputers, but also as quantum bits, “qubits” of superpositions of both 1 AND 0.Qubits communicate/compute by entanglement, collapse/reduce to answer.Quantum cryptography – Quantum states transmitted by nonlocal entanglement;eavesdropping alters message, hence secrecy insured. Now used commercially!Quantum teleportation – States of particles communicated by nonlocal entanglement,resulting in destruction/exact duplication elsewhere. Beam me up, Scotty!!!
74Why don’t we see quantum superpositions in our world? Consciousnesscollapsesthe wave function:Schrodinger’s cat2) Superpositions areseparations in reality:multiple worlds
75Superpositions persist until interaction with classical 3) Decoherence:Superpositions persist untilinteraction with classicalenvironment at the border between quantum and classical worlds.(But this doesn’t explain isolated superpositions)4) David Bohm’s Quantum potential: Underlying pilot waves (“Implicate order”)guide quantum particlesto choose/“unfold to”classical states(“explicate order”)
76Consciousness is an actual physical process, a sequence of quantum state reductions connected by E=h/t to an objective threshold inherent inspacetime geometry(objective reduction, OR)Bing!!!Sir Roger Penrose
77Penrose: underlying structure of the quantum world embeds Platonic information and precursors of life and consciousnessFreeman Dyson: “Mind and intelligence are woven into the fabric of the universe”(The quantum world is NOT random/uncertain; randomness/uncertainty introduced in measurement/decoherence. Einstein: “God does not play dice with the universe!”Einstein: Matter is equivalent to curvature in spacetime - not only at large scales, but at infinitesimally tiny scales – the basement level of the universe at the Planck scale…10-33 cm
78a bubble or separation in the fabric of reality Penrose observed that quantum superposition – an object in two places/states simultaneously – equated to two spacetime curvatures in different directions:a bubble or separation in the fabric of realityBut the separations are unstable, and after a time t (given by E=h/t) will spontaneously self-collapse to one curvature or the other (an “objective reduction” – O.R.).
79Orch OR conscious events - Ripples in quantum Bing Bing Bing Bing BingOrch OR conscious events - Ripples in quantumspacetime geometry occurring at gamma synchrony
80Penrose-Hameroff 1995Quantum computations in microtubules reduce by OR, orchestrated by synapses - Orch OR
81Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model 1995/1996 original publications 1995 to present – criticism, no refutation1998 – 20 testable predictions publishedValidations:1) coherent megahertz excitations in microtubules (Pokorny 2004)2) warm quantum coherence in biology (Engel et al, 2007)3) topological quantum error correction4) ballistic conduction in microtubules at megahertz (Bhadyapatyay)5) gap junctions mediate neural correlate of consciousness ( )Conscious pilot/Orch OR is the most complete theory of consciousness
82Where’s consciousness? Where’s the BING? Hameroff and Penrose 96 –Precursors of conscious experience embedded in the fabric of spacetime, fundamental spacetime geometry at the Planck scaleLoop quantum gravity/quantum geometry String theory, Calabi-Yau spaceConsciousness, information in the fabric of spacetime geometry?Where’s consciousness? Where’s the BING?
83Our choices, actions and perceptions may be influenced by quantum Platonic values at the Planck scale(e.g. The “Way of the Tao”)
84Mind Matter Ground of being Quantum spacetime geometry Nonduality Neutral MonismMindMatterQuantum spacetime geometryGround of being
85Mind Matter Ground of being Quantum spacetime geometry Nonduality Neutral MonismMindMatterPenroseObjective Reduction decoherenceOrch OR measurementQuantum spacetime geometryGround of being
86Conclusions Consciousness is a sequence of discrete quantum eventsat the fundamental level of spacetime geometrySuch events are connected to the brain via quantum processes in microtubulesConceivably, when brain metabolism ceases, quantum information in spacetime geometry can persist, and remain entangled as a ‘soul’Soul-like quantum information could return to the body(NDE/OOB), or an embryo or zygote (reincarnation)
87Toward a Science of Consciousness 2010 April 12-17, Tucson, Arizona