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Ge 116 Module 1: Scanning Electron MicroscopyPart 1: Electron optics, beam-specimen interactions & imaging
What is an SEM? Parts of an SEM: Vacuum chamber and pumpsElectron source Electron column: High Voltage Optics Scan coils Stage Detectors Analog or digital display
Electron sources: Filament
Electron sources: Filament
Electron sources: Field Emission
Electron sources: Field Emission
Electron sources: ComparisonBrightness (A/cm2sr) Lifetime Source Size Beam Stability W filament 105 <100 h >30 m 1% LaB6 106 <1000 h >5 m Field Emission 108 >1000 h < 30 nm 2%
Electron optics Condenser Lenses Apertures Stigmators Scan CoilsObjective Lens
Electron Beam Limits Probe current Minimum beam diameter ~1Source Brightness Electon DeBroglie wavelength, ~9 pm Spherical Aberration Coefficient, ~2 cm
Electron Beam Limits
Beam-Specimen InteractionsElastic Back-scattered electrons Inelastic Secondary electrons Bremsstrahlung X-rays Characteristic X-rays Auger electrons Other Cathodoluminescence Specimen current
Beam-Specimen Interaction Volume
Beam-Specimen Interaction VolumeIncreased backscatter yield for inclined specimen surface Locations of secondary electron emission Horizontal spread of backscatter emission for normal and inclined specimens
Backscattered Electrons(b is specimen current image)
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