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Ge 116 Module 1: Scanning Electron Microscopy Part 1: Electron optics, beam- specimen interactions & imaging
What is an SEM? Parts of an SEM: Vacuum chamber and pumps Electron source Electron column: High Voltage Optics Scan coils Stage Detectors Analog or digital display
Electron sources: Filament
Electron sources: Field Emission
Electron sources: Comparison SourceBrightness (A/cm 2 sr) LifetimeSource Size Beam Stability W filament10 5 <100 h >30 m 1% LaB <1000 h >5 m 1% Field Emission 10 8 >1000 h< 30 nm2%
Electron optics Condenser Lenses Apertures Stigmators Scan Coils Objective Lens
Electron Beam Limits Minimum beam diameter ~1 Spherical Aberration Coefficient, ~2 cm Electon DeBroglie wavelength, ~9 pm Probe current Source Brightness
Electron Beam Limits
Beam-Specimen Interactions Elastic –Back-scattered electrons Inelastic –Secondary electrons –Bremsstrahlung X-rays –Characteristic X-rays –Auger electrons Other –Cathodoluminescence –Specimen current
Beam-Specimen Interaction Volume
Increased backscatter yield for inclined specimen surface Horizontal spread of backscatter emission for normal and inclined specimens Locations of secondary electron emission
(b is specimen current image)
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