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The structure of taxonomies: Facets and hierarchy Dagobert Soergel College of Information Studies University of Maryland.

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Presentation on theme: "The structure of taxonomies: Facets and hierarchy Dagobert Soergel College of Information Studies University of Maryland."— Presentation transcript:

1 The structure of taxonomies: Facets and hierarchy Dagobert Soergel College of Information Studies University of Maryland

2 Objectives Understand the full range of functions served by taxonomies. Understand the principles of meaningful conceptual structure. Be able to apply these principles to develop a meaningful structure of a domain.

3 Method Present many examples from which attendees can construct their own understanding. Example slides are meant to be read by the audience. Ask questions.

4 Outline Functions of taxonomies in business Facets: Aspects of meaning Hierarchy: Packaging & interlinking of meaning Definitions: Clarification of meaning Concept analysis and synthesis exercise and examples Conclusion

5 Functions of taxonomies in business Design for multiple functions to maximize return on investment

6 Functions of taxonomies in business 1 Support intellectual work in the organization Support learning in training applications Help decision makers to sort out the dimensions of a problem Support shared conceptual models in collaborative work Help authors to write well-structured documents

7 Functions of taxonomies in business 2 Support information organization and search Organize intranets for query-based retrieval and browsing Support user-centered indexing Support query formulation, elicit user needs (applies equally to controlled-vocabulary and free-test search) Support organized display of retrieval results Support search for external information Organize data dictionaries

8 User-centered indexing 1 Also called request- or problem-oriented indexing Principles Construct a taxonomy based on user queries and interests. Thus provide a conceptual framework that organizes user interests and communicates them to indexers. Index materials from users' perspective: Add need-based retrieval clues beyond those available in the document. Increase probability that needed retrieval clues are available. Indexing = judging relevance against user concepts. Relevance rather than aboutness

9 Request-oriented index terms Competitors technologies Technological developments that might put us out of business Ideas for improving our products New uses for our products

10 Request-oriented index terms Sample user concepts for indexing images Good scientific illustration Useful for advertising brochure Useful for newspaper ad Useful for banner ad Cover page quality

11 User-centered indexing 2 Implementation Index language as checklist Knowledgeable indexers Expert system using syntactic and semantic analysis and inference Statistically-based classifiers trained on examples

12 Taxonomies for meaning Taxonomies must convey meaning to help learners assimilate information to help decision makers to see all dimensions of a problem to help indexers consider all important aspects to help users analyze the query topic to help users process search results

13 Facets: Aspects of meaning

14 Facets for defining non-profit service options 1 Population served/affected 2 Location 3 Type of need addressed / area or type of service 4 How we address the need 5 Funding model 6 Other service characteristics These facets can be applied to any type of product marketing

15 Facets for defining service options 1 Population served/affected 1.1 By economic status 1.2 By ethnicity 1.3 By age 1.4...

16 Facets for service options 3 Type of need addressed / area or type of service 3.1 Pre-natal care 3.2 Comprehensive services for 0 - 3 3.3 Preschool 3.3.1 Preschool for 3s 3.3.2 Preschool for 4-5 3.4 Follow-up assistance with school 3.5 Adult education 3.5.1 Parenting education, general life skills 3.5.2 ESL 3.5.3 GED 3.6 Social services 3.7 Job services 3.7.1 Job training – what careers? 3.7.2 Job placement 3.8 Health services 3.9 Parent association, community empowerment

17 Facets for service options The scheme presented can be used for systematic analysis of a service or marketing problem problem-centered organization and retrieval of information

18 Dimensions for business processes What? How? Who?

19 Facets to describe businesses application contexts of business knowledge. branches of industry and trade..primary industries (agriculture, mining, chemical, etc.)..secondary industries (banking, insurance, wholesale, etc.).type of business or organization (a group of facets)..public versus private corporation..publicly versus privately held corporation..profit vs. not-for-profit corporation..large versus small corporation..corporation by geographical scope.traditional versus electronic business activity Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College

20 Facets to describe businesses application contexts of business knowledge.traditional versus electronic business activity..traditional business activity STphysical business activity..electronic combined with traditional business activity STclick-and-mortar business..electronic business activity STvirtual business STebusiness...ecommerce STelectronic commerce Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College

21 Semantic factoring The elemental concepts listed in each facet can be combined into compound concepts, such as agriculture bank e-bank small private agriculture bank agriculture insurance chemical bank etc. Conversely, compound concepts can be semantic factored into their elemental constituents. A small number of elemental concepts can be used as building blocks to build many compound concepts.

22 Facet principles A facet groups concepts that fall under the same aspect or feature in the definition of more complex concepts; it groups all concepts that can be answers to a given question. : Each facet is a slot in a frame, e.g., a type of business frame; a facet groups all concepts that can serve as fillers in one slot. Using elemental concepts as building blocks for constructing compound concepts drastically reduces the number of concepts in the taxonomy and thus leads to conceptual economy. It also facilitates the search for general concepts, such as searching for the concept small business, which occurs in many combinations.

23 Facets to describe change by direction of change no change change up change down change up then down change down then up by magnitude of change small change medium change large change Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College by rate of change slow change moderate speed change fast change sudden change by promulgated vs organic change promulgated change organic change

24 Hierarchy: Packaging & interlinking meaning Ordered arrangement to convey meaning Examples

25 Ebusiness functions finance, accounting, and control E4.human resources E6.internal relations E8.Operations (see next slide) (expanded) research and product planning E10.4..pricing E10.6..promotion, advertising E10.6.2...sales and selling E10.8..customer relationship management E12.external relations (expanded) E12.2..public relations E12.4..government relations E12.6..relations with other organizations Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College

26 Ebusiness functions... E8.Operations E8.2..internal infrastructure E8.4..research and development chain E8.8..production E8.10..distribution E8.12..Inventory Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College

27 Polyhierarchy business functions (internal) Economics (external) labor and work human resources part-time employees part-time worklabor economics part-time labor market themes cutting across Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College

28 Ebusiness functions (internal) E4.human resources BT G4 labor and work E4.2..part-time employees BTG4.2 part-time work Feconomics (external) F4.labor economics BT G4 labor and work F4.2..part-time labor market BTG4.2 part-time work Gthemes cutting across G4.labor and work NT E4 human resources F4 labor economics G4.2..part-time work NT E4.2 part-time employees F4.2 part-time labor market Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College

29 Polyhierarchy example Ebusiness functions E8.Operations chain NT E8.12.2 pre-production inventory E8.8..production E8.10..distribution NT E8.12.4 post-production inventory E8.12..inventory E8.12.2...pre-production inventory BT E8.6 supply chain inventory BT E8.10 distribution Copyright © 2002 President and Fellows of Harvard College

30 Functions of hierarchy Provide an overview of an area, a framework Facilitate request-oriented indexing Assist in query formulation ­ hierarchy for browsing Allow for inclusive (hierarchically expanded searching Collocate related objects

31 Definitions: Clarification of meaning

32 JCbasic prevention categories JC2.prevention by timing of the intervention JC2.2..primary prevention JC2.4..secondary prevention JC2.6..tertiary prevention JC4.prevention by scope of recipient group JC4.2..universal prevention JC4.4..targeted prevention JC4.4.2...selective prevention JC4.4.4...indicated prevention

33 JC4 Prevention by scope of recipient group SNThis scheme is based on the intended recipients and the cost-benefit analysis of preventive interventions as it relates to universal or limited recipient groups. An intervention that has a low per-capita cost can be applied to a large recipient group which statistically has a small percentage of members who are at risk and still have a good ROI. Contrariwise, an intervention that has a high per-capita cost is worthwhile only if it is targeted at a smaller group which has a high percentage who are at risk. Note: For prevention you can read advertising and marketing

34 JC4.2 universal prevention SNDirected at the general public or a population group that has not been identified on the basis of individual risk. The intervention is desirable for everyone in that group and has a low per-capita cost. JC4.4 targeted prevention SNTargeted at subgroups of the population or at individuals who are at high or very high risk. There are two subordinate categories which are distinguished by the specificity of targeting (the precision of selection into the recipient group), the degree of risk, and the warranted cost per recipient.

35 JC4.4.2 selective prevention SNA measure that is desirable only when the individual is a member of a subgroup of the population whose risk of developing the disorder is above average. The subgroups may be distinguished by age, gender, occupation, family history, place of residence or travel, or other evident characteristics (as opposed to characteristics whose determination requires individual examination). JC4.4.4 indicated prevention SNTargeted to high-risk individuals who are identified, through individual examination, as (1) having biological markers indicating predisposition for a disorder or (2) having minimal but detectable signs or symptoms foreshadowing a disorder whose symptoms are still early and are not sufficiently severe to merit a diagnosis of the disorder.

36 Concept analysis and synthesis Exercise and examples

37 securities market securities trading aggressive portfolio online securities trading stock redemption futures market insured bonds high-risk derivatives stock issuance stock options pricing regional stocks futures trading

38 Concept analysis and concept discovery Consider the following list of terms parking garage bus station train station harbor airport What is the common semantic factor (a more abstract concept in common to all of them)?

39 Concept analysis 2 Consider wage price/cost interest rent fees (insurance) premium Common concept payment in exchange for some consideration (the consideration is different in each case)

40 Concept analysis 3 Consider transactional analysis, dream analysis, insight therapy, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, cognitive therapy Umbrella concept for structuring the hierarchy and for retrieval: analytic psychotherapy (methods that seek to assist patients in a personality reconstruction through insight into their inner selves)

41 Conclusion Systematic discovery and structuring of meaning through facet analysis and hierarchy building empowers users to orient themselves and move in a concept space analyze the dimensions of a problem and determine what information is needed; formulate a query that will find that information or browse productively – move at ease in an information space For an example see the Alcohol and Other Drug Thesaurus (search Google for AOD Thesaurus)

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