2 DNA and Protein Synthesis DNA contains the genetic information tomake amino acidsAmino acids combine to make proteinsThese proteins determine the physical traitsof an organism and control cellular functions.Proteins do everything,and DNA gets all thecredit!Think of them as tiny minionswho do all the work
4 DNA and Protein Synthesis Codon: three bases code for a specific protein:ex: AAA = LysineThe codons code for 20 amino acidsJust like the alphabet has 26 letters to make allthe words we know, the 20 amino acids makeall the different proteins found in livingorganismsThe codons are the template for protein synthesis,which takes place on the ribosomes (rRNA) in thecytoplasm
5 Name the Amino Acid: UAU CCG AGU Tyrosine GCA Proline Serine Alanine DNA and Protein Synthesis – Codons and amino acidsName the Amino Acid:UAUCCGAGUGCATyrosineProlineSerineAlanine
6 But… How does the information get from the DNA to the cytoplasm? DNA and Protein SynthesisBut… How does the information get from the DNA to the cytoplasm?mRNA
7 DNA and Protein Synthesis - Transcription 1) DNA unzips2) mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) copies info from DNA using base pairingsRNA is different from DNASingle stranded, not double strandedInstead of deoxyribose, it has riboseinstead of Thymine, it uses Uracil3) Carries the genetic code from the nucleus to theribosome in the cytoplasm
8 DNA and Protein Synthesis - Translation rRNA (ribosomal RNA) attaches to mRNA and starts reading the codonstRNA (transfer RNA) – carries amino acids and attaches them to the growing protein chainWhen protein production is complete, the ribosome releases the protein chain
10 DNA G A T T A C A C U A A U G U mRNA DNA and Protein SynthesisPractice making mRNA using the DNA templateDNAG A T T A C AC U A A U G UmRNA
11 mRNA CUA AUG UGC DNA and Protein Synthesis Amino acids are linked together in the sameorder as the codons , creating a protein chainJust like linking letters to make words, linkingamino acids makes proteinsmRNACUA AUG UGCLeucine methionineAmino AcidAmino AcidAmino Acid
12 Mutations are any changes that take place in DNA: DNA and MutationsMutations are any changes that take place in DNA:Can be spontaneous or caused by mutagensex: Chemicals, high temperatures, UV light,radiationCan change the genetic code, and be replicatedwhen forming new body cells.In sex cells, can be passed on to offspring.Mutations can be neutral, beneficial, or harmfulex: Blue eyes – a mutation that occurred 6-10,000 years ago, can be traced back to one ancestorwhat kind of mutation is that?
13 DNA and Mutations – Lets looks at different mutations THE DOG BIT THE CAT
14 Substitution - Replace just one letter: THE DOG BIT THE CAR DNA and Mutations - SubstitutionTHE DOG BIT THE CATSubstitution - Replace just one letter:THE DOG BIT THE CAR
15 Deletion: Delete just one letter (T): THE DOG BIT HEC AT DNA and Mutations - DeletionTHE DOG BIT THE CATDeletion: Delete just one letter (T):THE DOG BIT HEC AT
16 Insertion - Add just one letter (E): THE DOE GBI TTH ECA T DNA and Mutations-InsertionsTHE DOG BIT THE CATInsertion - Add just one letter (E):THE DOE GBI TTH ECA TCells have “proof reading” proteins that constantly check the DNA and fix errors, so most are corrected
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