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© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade copyright cmassengale 1 Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The Father of Genetics.

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Presentation on theme: "© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade copyright cmassengale 1 Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The Father of Genetics."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade copyright cmassengale 1 Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The Father of Genetics

2 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Gregor Johann Mendel Austrian monk Austrian monk Studied the inheritance of traits in pea plants Studied the inheritance of traits in pea plants Developed the laws of inheritance Developed the laws of inheritance Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century 2

3 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Gregor Johann Mendel Between 1856 and 1863, Mendel cultivated and tested thousands of pea plants Between 1856 and 1863, Mendel cultivated and tested thousands of pea plants He found that the plants' offspring retained traits of the parents He found that the plants' offspring retained traits of the parents copyright cmassengale 3

4 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade copyright cmassengale 4 Mendel stated that physical traits are inherited as particles Mendel stated that physical traits are inherited as particles Mendel did not know that the particles were actually Chromosomes & DNA Mendel did not know that the particles were actually Chromosomes & DNA Particulate Inheritance

5 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Why peas, Pisum sativum? Can be grown in a small area Can be grown in a small area Produce lots of offspring Produce lots of offspring Produce pure plants when allowed to self- pollinate several generations Produce pure plants when allowed to self- pollinate several generations Can be artificially cross-pollinated Can be artificially cross-pollinated copyright cmassengale 5

6 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas Mendel tested 7 traits: 1.Flower color 2.Flower position 3.Seed color 4.Seed shape 5.Pod shape 6.Pod color 7.Plant height http://www.fieldmuseum.org/exhibits/traveling_mendel.htm

7 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas Mendel crossed flowers that were true- breeding for each characteristic. He crossed a purple (PP) flowered plant with a white (pp) flowered plant. (Parent Generation) http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/KH_lecture_images/Mendel/Mendel.html

8 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas The first generation (F1) of plants all had purple flowers. Where did the white color go?? (Pp) (Pp) Purple Parent (PP) White Parent (pp)

9 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas Mendel took two of his first generation (F1 x F1) purple flowered plants and crossed them together. In the second generation (F2) he had 3 purple flowered plants, and 1 white flowered plant. (PP) (Pp) (pp) Purple Parent (Pp)

10 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas Mendel noticed in the first generation, all of the white flowers seemed to disappear. He called this a recessive trait. The white color faded into the background at first. It showed up in the next generation when he pollinated the flowers.

11 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas The color (purple) that seemed to mask over the recessive color was named the dominant trait.

12 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas Mendel was responsible for figuring out that each plant carried two sets of instructions for each characteristic (one from the mom and one from thedad). Like many scientists, his work was not accepted until after his death.

13 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Lets Review 1. If you crossed a true-breeding black rabbit with a true-breeding white rabbit, all of the offspring would be black. Which trait is dominant in rabbits: black fur or white fur? 2. Which trait is recessive?

14 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Answer The trait for black fur is dominant over the trait for white fur. The white fur trait is recessive. http://www.buckeyevalleyfarms.freeservers.com/photo.html (Bb) (Bb) (Bb) Black Rabbit (BB) White Rabbit (bb)

15 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Googles tribute to Mendel July 2011

16 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Science Humor

17 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas Vocabulary 1.Heredity- the passing of traits from parent to offspring. 2.Self-pollinate- A plant is often able to pollinate by itself because it contains both the male and female reproductive structures. This only requires 1 parent.

18 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas 3. True-breeding- all of the offspring will have the same trait as the parent when self-pollinated 4.First-generation- the very first set of offspring from two parents 5.Dominant trait- the trait observed when at least one dominant allele for a characteristic is inherited

19 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas 6. Recessive trait- a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited 7.Genes- a segment of DNA that carries hereditary instructions and is passed from parent to offspring 8.Alleles- multiple forms of the same gene

20 © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade Mendel and His Peas 9.Genotype- an organisms inherited combination of alleles 10. Phenotype- an organisms inherited appearance


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