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Presentation on theme: "Hubers Amazing New Observations. Presentations online Before you take copious notes, all these presentations are online here:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hubers Amazing New Observations

2 Presentations online Before you take copious notes, all these presentations are online here:

3 Who was Huber? Francis Huber Born in Switzerland Started losing his sight at 15 Proved virtually every practical fact we know about bees.

4 The two volumes Volume I is mostly about raising queens, mating queens, drone laying queens, laying workers and the formation of swarms. It was first published in 1792 in French Volume II is about the production of wax, the architecture of the bees, respiration etc, and was first published in 1814 in French

5 How does a blind man make observations? I am much more certain, said he one day to me smiling, of what I taste than you are, for you publish what your own eyes only have seen, while I take the mean among many witnesses. --Memoir of Huber by Professor De Candolle

6 A true scientist Took much of the speculation of his day and constructed experiments to prove or disprove them. Made repeatable experiments so others could verify his discoveries Invented devices and hives to allow the appropriate observations Measured things carefully Carefully distinguished his actual observations from his assumptions

7 His collaborators Francis Burnens (his servant) Pierre Huber (his son) Maria Aimée Lullin Huber (his wife) Jean Senebier (a chemist) Charles Bonnet (a naturalist) Christine Jurine (a naturalist/artist/dissector) John Hunter (a naturalist)

8 His discoveries Details of the mating of the queen Details of the forming of swarms Details of the making of emergency queens Details on drone laying queens Details on laying workers Details on the production of wax Details of the construction of comb Details of the respiration and ventilation of the colony Details of the way bees guard their hives

9 Proofs Proved that queens mate with drones (which was still in dispute) Proved that the queen mates outside the hive Proved that there are drone laying queens Proved that there are laying workers Proved that bees breath (which was still in dispute) Proved how they ventilate the hive Proved that wax is NOT made from pollen

10 Proofs (cont.) Proved that nectar is the needed ingredient for wax Proved that bees secrete wax scales from nectar Proved that the scales are not true beeswax but are the primary ingredient Proved that propolis comes from poplar buds Proved that comb is reinforced with propolis and other secretions of the bees

11 Proofs (cont.) Proved that bees need contact with the queen to know that she is there (was on the verge of proving pheromones and QMP transfer by trophalaxis) Proved that bees can smell Proved that they need their antennae for many things Proved that all workers are female Proved that combs have a beespace between them

12 Inventions Invented the movable comb hive. Invented many different observation hives to observe many different things including the construction of comb

13 Hubers leaf hive

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17 Leaf Hive Frame

18 Leaf hive

19 Leaf hive open

20 Cutaway side view of comb in frame

21 Male reproductive organ (1 st ½)

22 Male reproductive organ (2 nd ½)

23 Portion remaining in Queen

24 One cell standing on end

25 With cap removed

26 Showing bottom of one cell is part of the bottom of three cells

27 Abdomen

28 Wax Glands in segment

29 Wax glands removed

30 Leg

31 Structure of comb

32 Transition comb

33 Contact Info Michael Bush bees at bushfarms dot com Book: The Practical Beekeeper


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