Presentation on theme: "EMERGING FOODBORNE PATHOGENS"— Presentation transcript:
1 EMERGING FOODBORNE PATHOGENS Prof. Dr. İrfan EROL, DVM, Ph.D. Turkish Representative of World Vet. Assoc.Department of Food Hygiene and Technology School of Veterinary Medicine Ankara University
2 Despite advances in hygiene, consumer knowledge, food treatment and processing, foodborne diseases mediated by pathogenic microorganisms or microbial toxins still represent a significant treat to public health worldwide.
3 Globally, the WHO has estimated that approximately 1 Globally, the WHO has estimated that approximately 1.5 billion episodes of diarrhea and more than 3 million deaths occurred in children under 5 years of age, and a significant proportion of these results from consumption of food mainly food of animal origin with microbial pathogens and toxins
4 Emerging & Reemerging Zoonotic Diseases 60 % of the human pathogens are zoonotic75 % of emerging zoonotic
5 Emerging Foodborne Pathogens Definition:those causing illnesses that have only recently appeared or been recognised in a population or that are well recognised but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range
6 Emerging Foodborne Diseases Appeared recentlyExtended to new vehicles of transmissionStarted to increase rapidly in incidence or geographic rangeBeen widespread for many years but only recently identified through new or increased knowledge or methods of identification and analysis of the disease agent
7 Emerging Foodborne Diseases Pose a threat to all persons; no matter on age, sex, lifestyle or socio-economic status etc.Feel pain and deathEconomic impact
8 Emerging Foodborne Diseases Major trends Changes in environment (technology, climate, etc)Mass production and globalisation of food supplyEconomic developmentInternational travel and tradeChanging character of the populationBreakdown in public healthLifestyle changesMicrobial adaptation
18 WHO Surveillance Programme for Control of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in Europe 8th Report Country Reports: Turkey
19 Emerging foodborne diseaeses estimated annually PathogenEmerging foodborne diseaeses estimated annuallyCases No. of No. ofIlnesses DeathsEconomic losses from foodborne diseases estimated annualy$ billionCampylobacter spp.1,963,14110,539991.2Salmonella non-typhoidal1,341,87315,6085532.4E. coli O157:H762,4581,84352.7E. coli non-O157-STEC31,22992126.3L. monocytogenes2,4932,2984992.3Total3,401,19431,2091,2296.9Reference: USDA’s Economic Research Service & CDC
20 Some Important Salmonella Outbreaks in the World YearCountryFoodSerotype/Phage typeNo. of casesNo. of deaths1991GermanyOrange creamS.Enteritidis PT41094Puding (egg)S.Enteritidis87101994U.S.AIce cream224000-2003ChickenS. Typhimurium382005SpainProcessedchickenS. Hadar213812006NorwaySalamiS. Kedougou542008Ireland&U.KBeef, chickenS. Agona119
21 Salmonella serotype distribution in Turkey (Erol et al., 2009) S. AgonaS. Kentucky SpicesS. Bredeney
22 Some Important Campylobacter Outbreaks in the World YearCountryFoodNo. of cases2000U.K & WalesRaw milk333AustraliaChicken6012005DenmarkChicken salad4ScotlandChicken pate82U.S.AWater322007Cheese (from unpasteurized milk)6716
23 Campylobacter jejuniQuinolone- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in the United States, 1982–2001
26 Antibiotic resistance profile of C Antibiotic resistance profile of C. jejuni isolates in turkey meat (Cakmak and Erol, 2009)AntibioticsResistant %Intermediate %Sensitive %Azithromycin104 (95.4)2 (1.8)3 (2.7)Erythromycin103 (94.4)6 (5.5)Gentamicin109 (100.0)Chloramphenicol106 (97.2)Nalidixic acid10 (9.1)99 (90.8)Ciprofloxacin19 (17.4)90 (82.5)Tetracycline40 (36.6)67 (61.4)
27 Some important E. coli O157:H7 Outbreaks in the World CountryYearNo of cases(age)ComplicationsInfection sourceJapan1996>5499 (students)12 deathsAlfalfaU.S.A1999321-BeefCanada2000275 deathsWaterSweden200239Fermented sausage345 HUSGround beefNetherlands200532Steak tartare20063763 deathsFresh spinach
29 Number of positive samples E. coli O157:H7 isolates found in fecal samples of cattle and sheep at slaughter in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008)SheepCattle(male)(female)TotalNumber of samples21828220775500Number of positive samples14117425Percent(%)6.423.903.385.335.00
30 Positive Negative Total stx1 7 4 11 stx2 9 2 eaeA - hly H7 Toxin profiles of E. coli O157:H7 isolated in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008)
31 Toxin profiles of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates within the PFGE groups in cattle in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008)PFGE groupsNToxin profilesA1stx2B2Cstx1 and stx2D4stx1
32 Some Important Listeria outbreaks in the World CountryYearFoodSerotypeNo. of casesNo. of deathsU.S.A.1998Turkey products4b10818FinlandButter3a2524France2000Pork meat32311/2a3072002-54112003Mexican cheese122Switzerland2005Soft cheeseNorway2007CheeseCanada2008Red meat5320
38 Sewage water treatment at slaughterhouse Number of positive samples Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in Turkey (Kursun and Erol, 2003)Surface waterSewage water treatment at slaughterhouseEnt Exist.SlaughteredCattle SheepNumber of samples24Number of positive samplesPercent(%)100
41 Antibiotic resistance It’s a global concern of the antibiotic resistance of major foodborne pathogens such as;Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104Campylobacter spp.Listeria monocytogenesE. coli O157:H7Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Enterococcus (VRE)
45 Control of Foodborne Disease From farm to table approachImplementation of GMP and HACCP
46 Public Health Approach Public health systemSurveillanceEpidemiology for earlier diagnosisEarly response to outbreaksProvide to disease patterns changingPublic health lab. support for rapid and accurate diagnosisRapid communication linksCommunication to publicEducation on prevention and/or detection
48 Factors contributing to the global incidence of foodborne disease Poor sanitary conditionsMalnutritionChanging demographics (increasing population of infants, elderly)Inadequate public health infrastructureInadequate hygienic and technological conditions of food productionInadequate cooking, reheating and storage conditionsIncreasing tourism and international tradeIncreasing animal movement and insufficient control of bordersIncreasing international trade of animal and foodInadequate legislation and official control systemEmerging/reemerging foodborne pathogensAcquisition of virulence and antibiotic genes by nonpathogenic bacteriaAdaptation and enhanced survival of pathogens in foodInadequate consumer education
49 Trichinellosis outbreak in Turkey Although there is a religious restriction on pork meat consumption, in January 2004 there was a big trichinellosis outbreak occurred by consuming çiğ köfte (raw ground meat ball-traditional food) in Izmir542 people were affected and samples were found to be contaminated with T. britovi
50 One World One Health (OWOH) The medical and veterinary professions have a common interest in many diseases, primarily zoonotic diseases such as BSE, SARS and, most recently, Avian Influenza (H5N1), have highlighted the need for interprofessional collaboration not just locally and nationally, but on a global scale.
51 One World One Health (OWOH) Improving animal and human health globally through collaboration among all the health sciences, especially between the veterinary and human medical professions to address critical needs.
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