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EMERGING FOODBORNE PATHOGENS

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Presentation on theme: "EMERGING FOODBORNE PATHOGENS"— Presentation transcript:

1 EMERGING FOODBORNE PATHOGENS
Prof. Dr. İrfan EROL, DVM, Ph.D. Turkish Representative of World Vet. Assoc. Department of Food Hygiene and Technology School of Veterinary Medicine Ankara University

2 Despite advances in hygiene, consumer knowledge, food treatment and processing, foodborne diseases mediated by pathogenic microorganisms or microbial toxins still represent a significant treat to public health worldwide.

3 Globally, the WHO has estimated that approximately 1
Globally, the WHO has estimated that approximately 1.5 billion episodes of diarrhea and more than 3 million deaths occurred in children under 5 years of age, and a significant proportion of these results from consumption of food mainly food of animal origin with microbial pathogens and toxins

4 Emerging & Reemerging Zoonotic Diseases
60 % of the human pathogens are zoonotic 75 % of emerging zoonotic

5 Emerging Foodborne Pathogens
Definition: those causing illnesses that have only recently appeared or been recognised in a population or that are well recognised but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range

6 Emerging Foodborne Diseases
Appeared recently Extended to new vehicles of transmission Started to increase rapidly in incidence or geographic range Been widespread for many years but only recently identified through new or increased knowledge or methods of identification and analysis of the disease agent

7 Emerging Foodborne Diseases
Pose a threat to all persons; no matter on age, sex, lifestyle or socio-economic status etc. Feel pain and death Economic impact

8 Emerging Foodborne Diseases Major trends
Changes in environment (technology, climate, etc) Mass production and globalisation of food supply Economic development International travel and trade Changing character of the population Breakdown in public health Lifestyle changes Microbial adaptation

9 Emerging Foodborne Pathogens
Bacteria Viruses Parasites Prion

10 Emerging foodborne bacteria
Salmonella (multidrug resistant strain) Campylobacter jejuni E. coli O157:H7 Listeria monocytogenes S. aureus MRSA Vibrio vulnificus Yersinia enterocolitica Arcobacter spp. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

11 Emerging foodborne viruses
Hepatit A and E Norovirus (Avian influenza, AI)

12 Emerging foodborne parasites
Cryptosporidium parvum Cyclospora cayetanensis Anisakis spp.

13 Foodborne outbreaks 1996 - 2006  ● ▼  ●  ●  ● ● ●  ● ● ▼  ● ● ●
▼ Cryptosporidiosis, Leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis ● Brucellosis, E. coli 0157, Salmonellosis  BSE Reference: WHO

14 Reference: CDC

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18 WHO Surveillance Programme for Control of Foodborne Infections and Intoxications in Europe 8th Report Country Reports: Turkey

19 Emerging foodborne diseaeses estimated annually
Pathogen Emerging foodborne diseaeses estimated annually Cases No. of No. of Ilnesses Deaths Economic losses from foodborne diseases estimated annualy $ billion Campylobacter spp. 1,963,141 10,539 99 1.2 Salmonella non-typhoidal 1,341,873 15,608 553 2.4 E. coli O157:H7 62,458 1,843 52 .7 E. coli non-O157-STEC 31,229 921 26 .3 L. monocytogenes 2,493 2,298 499 2.3 Total 3,401,194 31,209 1,229 6.9 Reference: USDA’s Economic Research Service & CDC

20 Some Important Salmonella Outbreaks in the World
Year Country Food Serotype/Phage type No. of cases No. of deaths 1991 Germany Orange cream S.Enteritidis PT4 109 4 Puding (egg) S.Enteritidis 87 10 1994 U.S.A Ice cream 224000 - 2003 Chicken S. Typhimurium 38 2005 Spain Processed chicken S. Hadar 2138 1 2006 Norway Salami S. Kedougou 54 2008 Ireland&U.K Beef, chicken S. Agona 119

21 Salmonella serotype distribution in Turkey (Erol et al., 2009)
S. Agona S. Kentucky Spices S. Bredeney

22 Some Important Campylobacter Outbreaks in the World
Year Country Food No. of cases 2000 U.K & Wales Raw milk 333 Australia Chicken 601 2005 Denmark Chicken salad 4 Scotland Chicken pate 82 U.S.A Water 32 2007 Cheese (from unpasteurized milk) 67 16

23 Campylobacter jejuni Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in the United States, 1982–2001

24 Campylobacter jejuni

25 Thermophilic Camylobacter spp. 123 (45.5%)
Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in turkey meat (n=270) (Cakmak and Erol, 2009) Thermophilic Camylobacter spp. 123 (45.5%) C. jejuni 109 (40.3 %) C. coli 11 ( 4.0 %) Not typed 3 100 bp 500 bp 735 bp

26 Antibiotic resistance profile of C
Antibiotic resistance profile of C. jejuni isolates in turkey meat (Cakmak and Erol, 2009) Antibiotics Resistant % Intermediate % Sensitive % Azithromycin 104 (95.4) 2 (1.8) 3 (2.7) Erythromycin 103 (94.4) 6 (5.5) Gentamicin 109 (100.0) Chloramphenicol 106 (97.2) Nalidixic acid 10 (9.1) 99 (90.8) Ciprofloxacin 19 (17.4) 90 (82.5) Tetracycline 40 (36.6) 67 (61.4)

27 Some important E. coli O157:H7 Outbreaks in the World
Country Year No of cases(age) Complications Infection source Japan 1996 >5499 (students) 12 deaths Alfalfa U.S.A 1999 321 - Beef Canada 2000 27 5 deaths Water Sweden 2002 39 Fermented sausage 34 5 HUS Ground beef Netherlands 2005 32 Steak tartare 2006 376 3 deaths Fresh spinach

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29 Number of positive samples
E. coli O157:H7 isolates found in fecal samples of cattle and sheep at slaughter in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008) Sheep Cattle (male) (female) Total Number of samples 218 282 207 75 500 Number of positive samples 14 11 7 4 25 Percent (%) 6.42 3.90 3.38 5.33 5.00

30 Positive Negative Total stx1 7 4 11 stx2 9 2 eaeA - hly H7
Toxin profiles of E. coli O157:H7 isolated in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008)

31 Toxin profiles of 11 E. coli O157:H7 isolates within the PFGE groups in cattle in Turkey (Erol et al., 2008) PFGE groups N Toxin profiles A 1 stx2 B 2 C stx1 and stx2 D 4 stx1

32 Some Important Listeria outbreaks in the World
Country Year Food Serotype No. of cases No. of deaths U.S.A. 1998 Turkey products 4b 108 18 Finland Butter 3a 25 24 France 2000 Pork meat 32 31 1/2a 30 7 2002 - 54 11 2003 Mexican cheese 12 2 Switzerland 2005 Soft cheese Norway 2007 Cheese Canada 2008 Red meat 53 20

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34 Contamination level of turkey meat with
L. monocytogenes is 17.8 % (32/180) (Ayaz and Erol 2008)

35 L. monocytogenes serotype distribution
44.9 % 1/2a 37.2 % 4b 9.0 % 1/2b 9.0 % 1/2c

36 Antibiotic resistance profiles of L
Antibiotic resistance profiles of L. monocytogenes in turkey meat (n:24) (Ayaz and Erol, 2008) Antibiotics Resistant (%) Intermediate (%) Sensitive (%) Ampicillin 18 (75.0) - 6 (25.0) Chloramphenicol 24 (100) Erythromycin 9 (37.5) 15 (62.5) Gentamicin Penicillin 20 (83.3) 4 (16.7) Streptomycin 8 (33.3) 16 (66.7) Tetracycline Vancomycin

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38 Sewage water treatment at slaughterhouse Number of positive samples
Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in Turkey (Kursun and Erol, 2003) Surface water Sewage water treatment at slaughterhouse Ent Exist. Slaughtered Cattle Sheep Number of samples 24 Number of positive samples Percent (%) 100

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41 Antibiotic resistance
It’s a global concern of the antibiotic resistance of major foodborne pathogens such as; Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 Campylobacter spp. Listeria monocytogenes E. coli O157:H7 Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Enterococcus (VRE)

42 Foodborne Infections&Intoxications
Known/ Unknown Reported Positive Isolates Lab. Confirmed Cases Suspectible Cases Hospitalised No sample taken Unnotified Cases No medical intervention

43 Farm to table; main contamination points

44 Surveillance Risk management Epidemiological evaluation / Risk assessment Research

45 Control of Foodborne Disease
From farm to table approach Implementation of GMP and HACCP

46 Public Health Approach
Public health system Surveillance Epidemiology for earlier diagnosis Early response to outbreaks Provide to disease patterns changing Public health lab. support for rapid and accurate diagnosis Rapid communication links Communication to public Education on prevention and/or detection

47 THANK YOU

48 Factors contributing to the global incidence of foodborne disease
Poor sanitary conditions Malnutrition Changing demographics (increasing population of infants, elderly) Inadequate public health infrastructure Inadequate hygienic and technological conditions of food production Inadequate cooking, reheating and storage conditions Increasing tourism and international trade Increasing animal movement and insufficient control of borders Increasing international trade of animal and food Inadequate legislation and official control system Emerging/reemerging foodborne pathogens Acquisition of virulence and antibiotic genes by nonpathogenic bacteria Adaptation and enhanced survival of pathogens in food Inadequate consumer education

49 Trichinellosis outbreak in Turkey
Although there is a religious restriction on pork meat consumption, in January 2004 there was a big trichinellosis outbreak occurred by consuming çiğ köfte (raw ground meat ball-traditional food) in Izmir 542 people were affected and samples were found to be contaminated with T. britovi

50 One World One Health (OWOH)
The medical and veterinary professions have a common interest in many diseases, primarily zoonotic diseases such as BSE, SARS and, most recently, Avian Influenza (H5N1), have highlighted the need for interprofessional collaboration not just locally and nationally, but on a global scale.

51 One World One Health (OWOH)
Improving animal and human health globally through collaboration among all the health sciences, especially between the veterinary and human medical professions to address critical needs.


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