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© 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) Climate Change and Energy Policy in Development Cooperation The.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) Climate Change and Energy Policy in Development Cooperation The."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) Climate Change and Energy Policy in Development Cooperation The contribution of renewable energy Anna Pegels

2 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 2 Outline Development and energy Development and climate change Renewable energy Financing renewable energy

3 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 3 Development Policy Foremost aim: Promote development Millenium development goals (by 2015): –1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger –2: Achieve universal primary education –3: Promote gender equality and empower women –4: Reduce child mortality –5: Improve maternal health –6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases –7: Ensure environmental sustainability –8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development

4 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 4 Energy and MDG 1 MDG 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Renewable) energy can –Create/extend opportunities for income generation: Machinery increases productivity Lighting permits income generation beyond daylight hours Local energy supplies can be provided by small-scale, locally owned businesses creating employment reduce the work required for biomass collection, free up time for other productive activities –Reduce food shortage / enhance agricultural productivity: pumping for supplementary irrigation greater proportion of farm waste to be returned to the soil Reduced post-harvest losses through better preservation

5 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 5 Energy and MDG 2 MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education Less time pressure on children to collect wood, fetch water, and participate in agricultural work Electricity is essential: Lighting permits learning beyond daylight hours Higher availability of teachers through access to modern energy services, in particular electricity that enable a minimum quality of life and connectivity Electricity is basis for access to educational material, distance learning, and continuing education for teachers and students Access to energy provides the opportunity to use equipment for teaching (overhead projector, computer, printer, photocopier, science equipment)

6 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 6 Energy and MDG 3 MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Less time and effort spent by women and young girls gathering solid fuels and water, more free time for other income-producing activities, family subsistence, education Enhanced productivity of womens activities, e.g. agricultural processing Clean cooking fuels reduce exposure to indoor air pollution and improve health Electricity –is basis for ICT, eases political engagement for women (mostly unable to travel far from home / village) –Lighting permits home study and allows evening classes –Street lighting improves womens safety

7 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 7 Energy and MDG MDG 4: Reduce child mortality MDG 5: Improve maternal health –Reduced workload and heavy manual labor (carrying heavy loads of fuelwood and water) –Reduction of lung diseases from indoor air smoke –Pumped clean water and purification (boiling) –Effects on Health care infrastructure: Refrigeration essential for vaccines Electricity essential for many medical instruments, medical record keeping, communication (alert button), medical training, illumination Higher availability of qualified health care personnel

8 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 8 Energy and MDG 6 MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Effects of advanced energy sources: –Education and awareness campaigns, including radio and television, to educate at-risk populations about prevention and treatment options –Substituting for labor in areas where labor shortages exist as a result of HIV/AIDS –Energy is needed to develop, manufacture, distribute and store drugs, medicines, and vaccinations

9 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 9 Energy and MDG 7 MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Renewable energy leads to reduction of –Land degradation, erosion and desertification –Indoor air pollution –Local air pollution –Greenhouse gas emissions Increased agricultural productivity reduces need to expand quantity of land under cultivation

10 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 10 MDG 8 and Energy MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Develop a Global Partnership for Clean Energy!

11 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 11 Development and Climate Change 97% of the projected increase in emissions between now and 2030 comes from non-OECD countries – three-quarters from China, India and the Middle East alone (Source: IEA 2008)

12 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 12 Climate Change and Development More and stronger extreme weather events (Storms, floods, droughts) Changes in precipitation patterns, negative impacts on agricultural productivity Poorest are most vulnerable! Multiple reasons for renewable energy in developing countries: Greenhouse gas mitigation Job creation Clean energy source Diversification of energy sources, less dependency Improved access to energy especially in rural areas (off-grid)

13 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 13 RE: What technologies? Requirements: –Scalability –Cost-effectiveness –Simple use –Simple maintenance / repair –Robustness Best-practise cases

14 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 14 Solar cooker

15 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 15 Solar-powered lanterns

16 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 16 Domestic Biogas

17 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 17 Solar water heaters

18 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 18 Off-grid electricity solutions

19 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 19 RE: What challenges? Lack of consideration of local needs and interests: –Support of local leaders has to be ascertained –Projects often threaten existing ways to obtain power –Sometimes changeresistant villagers –Lack of local ownership and capacity: Donation of money or equipment is not sufficient Government subsidies for fossil fuels have held down prices in many DCs, difficult to change (impact on poverty) Expensive RE technology: –RE technologies still have to move down the learning curve –Prices for PV panels have surged due to higher demand from industrialized countries

20 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 20 Financial gap Possible sources: NGOs, Private sector, public sector (national + international) NGOs: Small-scale solutions, best-practise cases Provision of energy services to poor populations rarely profitable no easy market solution RE not profitable compared to fossil fuels no easy market solution Public sector must create conditions and incentives for private sector engagement Inclusion of RE in national and regional development strategies enabling investment conditions, regulation, ODA + climate finance

21 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 21 Climate financing sources Climate Financing – Main sources World Bank Group USD 1.9 billion (FY 09) Climate Investment Funds USD 5-10 billion Other MDBs ~ USD 3 billion (FY 09) Global Facility f. Disaster Reduction & Recovery USD 70 million EU Global Climate Alliance EUR 300 million UNDP USD 190 million for adaptation Adaptation Fund ~USD 100 million (FY 09) GEF USD 250 million (FY 09) Carbon Market (CDM/JI) USD 5 billion (FY 09) mitigation bothadaptation Source: World Bank

22 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 22 Conclusions Energy is essential for development Conventional energy supply causes GHG emissions DCs cannot follow same development path as industrialized countries RE can be a solution to emissions problem and grid connection problem IF the right technology is implemented at scale with – local involvement –capacity building and –international financial support.

23 © 2009 German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) 23 Thank you


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