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Air and Aerodynamics An ESON Presentation By Don Cheeseman.

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Presentation on theme: "Air and Aerodynamics An ESON Presentation By Don Cheeseman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air and Aerodynamics An ESON Presentation By Don Cheeseman

2 Grade 6 Air Objectives 1 1.Conduct tests of a model parachute design, and identify design changes to improve the effectiveness of the design. 2.Describe the design of a hot-air balloon and the principles by which its rising and falling are controlled.

3 Grade 6 Air Objectives 2 3. Describe and demonstrate instances in which air movement across a surface results in lift Bernoullis principle. 4. Recognize that in order for devices or living things to fly, they must have sufficient lift to overcome the downward force of gravity.

4 Grade 6 Air Objectives 3 5. Identify adaptations that enable birds and insects to fly. 6. Describe the means of propulsion for flying animals and for aircraft

5 Grade 6 Air Objectives 4 7. Recognize that streamlining reduces drag, and predict the effects of specific design changes on the drag of a model aircraft or aircraft components. 8. Recognize that air is composed of different gases, and identify evidence for different gases.

6 Grade 6 Air Objectives 5 7. Recognize that streamlining reduces drag, and predict the effects of specific design changes on the drag of a model aircraft or aircraft components. 8. Recognize that air is composed of different gases, and identify evidence for different gases.

7 Aerodynamics Objectives 1 1.Conduct tests of a model parachute design, and identify design changes to improve the effectiveness of the design. 2.Describe the design of a hot-air balloon and the principles by which its rising and falling are controlled. 3.Conduct tests of glider designs; and modify a design so that a glider will go further, stay up longer or fly in a desired way; e.g., fly in a loop, turn to the right.

8 Aerodynamics Objectives 2 4.Recognize the importance of stability and control to aircraft flight; and design, construct and test control surfaces. 5.Apply appropriate vocabulary in referring to control surfaces and major components of an aircraft. This vocabulary should include: wing, fuselage, vertical and horizontal stabilizers, elevators, ailerons, rudder.

9 Aerodynamics Objectives 3 6.Construct and test propellers and other devices for propelling a model aircraft. 7.Describe differences in design between aircraft and spacecraft, and identify reasons for the design differences.

10 Meeting Air Objectives 1 1.Conduct tests of a model parachute design, and identify design changes to improve the effectiveness of the design. Possible method use a plastic bag, thread and a paperclip.

11 Possible Parachute Plastic Bag with handles cut off 4or 6 threads Paper clips

12 Possible Parachute

13 Air Objectives 1 a Describe the design of a hot-air balloon and the principles by which its rising and falling are controlled. Air must be hotter in the balloon than outside Hot air expands and takes more space so is lighter for a given volume. Try to use parachute as hot air balloon and heat with a hair drier.

14 Possible hot air balloon Plastic Bag with handles cut off 4 threads Paper clips Blow hot air into bag to see it rise

15 Air Objectives 2 3.Describe and demonstrate instances in which air movement across a surface results in lift Bernoullis principle. Blow over the top of a strip of paper and it will rise. Bernoullis principle

16 Air Objectives 2 3.Recognize that in order for devices or living things to fly, they must have sufficient lift to overcome the downward force of gravity. Bird and bats have movable wing that change shape during flight to maximize efficiency. Some insects have very thin strong wings that beat very fast. Over 400 time a second for mosquitoes.

17 Four Forces

18 Air Objectives 3 6. Describe the means of propulsion for flying animals and for aircraft. Birds and insects flap wings and use thermal rising air to fly. Flying squirrels glide down not fly. Plane push air backward over fixed wing with prop or jet engine.

19 Excess thrust

20 Air Objectives 4 7.Recognize that streamlining reduces drag, and predict the effects of specific design changes on the drag of a model aircraft or aircraft components. The parts that catches on the air cause drag. Put hand out window of fast moving car and experiment with the different hand shapes.

21 Excess thrust

22 Air Objectives 4 8.Recognize that air is composed of different gases, and identify evidence for different gases. Nitrogen, N % Oxygen, O % Argon, Ar 0.93% Carbon dioxide, CO % Other rare gasses

23 Aerodynamics Objectives 2 4.Recognize the importance of stability and control to aircraft flight; and design, construct and test control surfaces. Fly small plane in Flight Simulator

24 Aerodynamics Objectives 2 5.Apply appropriate vocabulary in referring to control surfaces and major components of an aircraft. This vocabulary should include: wing, fuselage, vertical and horizontal stabilizers, elevators, ailerons, rudder. See control surfaces on planes

25 Aerodynamics Objectives 3 6.Construct and test propellers and other devices for propelling a model aircraft. Note thrust of propeller on model Max thrust is at the tip as it goes faster Note propeller in fans at home

26 Aerodynamics Objectives 3 7.Describe differences in design between aircraft and spacecraft, and identify reasons for the design differences. Aircraft need air to lift them and to provide oxygen for the engine Spaceships do not need air for lift or the engine they pushed along by the gases pushing away from them.

27 Aerodynamics Objectives 1 1.Conduct tests of a model parachute design, and identify design changes to improve the effectiveness of the design. Weight to drag ratio will effect descent Modern parachutes are really inflatable wing and work much better than the old dome shaped parachutes.

28 Aerodynamics Objectives 1 3.Conduct tests of glider designs; and modify a design so that a glider will go further, stay up longer or fly in a desired way; e.g., fly in a loop, turn to the right. Lift to weight ratio should be high Sail a glider on Flight Simulator software

29 Aerodynamics Objectives 2 4.Recognize the importance of stability and control to aircraft flight; and design, construct and test control surfaces. Fly small aircraft and glider in Flight Simulator

30 Aerodynamics Objectives 2 5.Apply appropriate vocabulary in referring to control surfaces and major components of an aircraft. This vocabulary should include: wing, fuselage, vertical and horizontal stabilizers, elevators, ailerons, rudder.

31 How does an airplane take off? 1 When an aircraft moves into the wind, the wings cut the airflow in half. Some air travels above the wing, some air travels below the wing. Plane wings are build to be curved on top and flat on the bottom.

32 How does an airplane take off? 2 The wind, or air stream, flowing over the wing travels a different path from air traveling under the wing. This difference in the path of the wind, creates lower air pressure above the wing. The higher air pressure under the wing lifts the plane into the air creating lift.

33 Lift 1

34 The lift equation

35 Newtons third law

36 How does an airplane take off? 3 When there is enough lift to overcome gravity, the plane takes off. All the time, the plane is being slowed down by having to push through the air. This is called drag, and the engines have to overcome it.

37 Lift Lift theory

38 How does an airplane take off? 4 As long as the plane continues to move forward at a fast enough speed, the plane continues to fly. Planes use engines to move quickly down the runway to create the lift for take off. Helicopters rotate their wings (or blades). The rotating motion forces air past the wings creating lift.

39 Lift Lift theory

40 Experiment with Flight 1. Make a Wing Material required: –(Paper, tape, thread, needle, and pencil) Cut the paper 15 cm x 5 cm Fold the paper 8 cm

41 Experiment with Flight 2 Roll the longer end of the paper evenly around the pencil to make it bulge. Tape the ends of the paper together so that it creates a wing shape (flat on the bottom, and curved on the top).

42 Experiment with Flight 3 Thread the needle and push the thread through the wing, about a third of the way back from the curved end. Remove the needle from the thread. Hold both ends of the thread and blow over the front end of wing.

43 Experiment with Flight 4 The air flowing over the wing, creates lower air pressure above the wing, so it rises up on the thread

44 Experiment with Flight 5 Experiment with two balls Material required: (two ping pong balls, thread, tape, drinking straw) Cut two pieces of thread. Tape a piece to each ping pong ball. Hang them from a doorway so they are about the height of your mouth and the distance between the balls is 2 cm (or 3/4 of an inch).

45 Experiment with Flight 6 Use the straw to blow on one ball. The distance between the two balls increases. Now try aiming the air between the two balls. Watch what happens? Why?

46 Air and Aerodynamics The end

47 Extra information and resources

48 Four Forces

49 Excess thrust

50 Lift 1

51 Lift Lift theory

52 Factors that effect lift

53 The lift equation

54 Newtons third law

55 Free falling Objects

56 Motion Of a free falling Object

57 Forces on Falling Objects

58 Terminal Velocity


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