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Designing for an inquiry-based approach to blended learning Norm Vaughan, Ph.D. Mount Royal University Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing for an inquiry-based approach to blended learning Norm Vaughan, Ph.D. Mount Royal University Calgary, Alberta, Canada."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing for an inquiry-based approach to blended learning Norm Vaughan, Ph.D. Mount Royal University Calgary, Alberta, Canada

2 Overview Student engagement Blended learning unpacked Inquiry through blended learning Case study Resources Handout-

3 Student engagement

4 Student Engagement What does this term or concept mean to you? Please list your thoughts on the handout Share and discuss your results with a partner

5 The 3 Rs of Engagement Relevance Rigour Relationships Dennis Littky, 2004

6 Optimal Flow... the mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, 1990

7 1.Autonomy 2.Mastery 3.Purpose

8 What did you do in school today?

9 Dimensions of Student Engagement Social Engagement Academic Engagement Intellectual Engagement Participation in the life of the school Participation in the requirements for school success Participation in learning with serious psychological and cognitive investment in learning

10 National Survey of Student Engagement Student engagement Amount of time and effort that students put into their classroom studies that lead to experiences and outcomes that constitute student success Ways the institution allocates resources and organizes learning opportunities and services to induce students to participate in and benefit from such activities

11 National Survey of Student Engagement Five clusters of effective educational practice (benchmarks) Active and collaborative learning Student interactions with faculty members Level of academic challenge Enriching educational experiences Supportive campus environment

12 Blended learning

13 Blended Learning – Your Thoughts Definition? Opportunities? Challenges? Please list your thoughts on the handout Share and discuss your results with a partner

14 Blended Learning Described... organic integration of thoughtfully selected and complementary face-to-face and online approaches and technologies.... an opportunity to fundamentally redesign how we approach teaching and learning in ways that higher education institutions may benefit from increased effectiveness, convenience and efficiency. (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008)

15 ONLINE SYNCHRONOUSSYNCHRONOUS ON-CAMPUS Blended Learning ASYNCHRONOUSASYNCHRONOUS Online Learning Traditional Higher Education ONLINE Blended Learning Blended Sunchild E-Learning Community

16 Approaches to BL Weak sense simply adding on to deficient approaches and ending up with a course and a half for example, continuing to lecture but adding an optional discussion board Strong sense a transformative process directed toward improving the quality of the educational experience capitalize on the potential of BL for engagement

17 Designing for Blended Learning Synchronous spontaneous ephemeral peer influence passion preferred Asynchronous reflective permanent < intimidating reason > rigor integrate complement

18 Why Blended Learning? Potential to create sustained communities of learners (e.g., engagement) Enhances student learning (effectiveness) Maximize institutional resources (efficiency) Access; retention (convenience)

19 BL Performance A meta-analysis found that instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction. Taken as a whole, the findings suggest that the observed advantage of blended learning is a product of redesigning the learning experience, not of the medium per se A Meta-Analysis of Online Learning, 2010

20 Challenges - Students General Transition – from a passive to an active & collaborative learning approach Study and time management skills Expecting that fewer classes equates to less work Accepting responsibility for completing individual & team activities Technical Obtaining high-speed Internet access Using more sophisticated technologies Power & Vaughan, 2010

21 Challenges - Teachers Managing risk factors Resistance to change Managing with scarce support for course redesign Developing new skills and learning to use new technology Managing potential technology crashes Power & Vaughan, 2010

22 Challenges - Administration Vision Action plan Collaborative leadership Incentives Sustainability Academic Recognition Power & Vaughan, 2010

23 Inquiry through Blended Learning (ITBL)

24 Inquiry Is problem or question driven Typically has a small-group feature Includes critical discourse Is frequently multi-disciplinary Incorporates research methods such as information gathering and synthesis of ideas

25 Community … community means meaningful association, association based on common interest and endeavor. The essence of community is communication John Dewey, 1916

26 Community Of Inquiry The importance of a community of inquiry is that, while the objective of critical reflection is intellectual autonomy, in reality, critical reflection is thoroughly social and communal. Lipman, 1991

27 Community of Inquiry Framework Social Presence The ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities. Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000)

28 Why CoI? – Evidence Studies have emphasized the importance of community as a key factor in successful online/blended learning (Conrad, 2005; Haythornthwaite & Kazmer, 2004; Rovai, 2002; Shea, 2006; Shea, Li, & Pickett, 2006). The Community of Inquiry provides a coherent and validated framework (Arbaugh et al., 2008; Bangert, 2009; Garrison et al., 2010; Shea & Bidjerano, 2008) to guide the creation of an effective and sustained learning community (Arbaugh, 2008).

29 Practical Inquiry Model – Phases SphereDescriptionCategory/PhaseIndicators Inquiry Process (Cognitive Presence) The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection, discourse, and application within a critical community of inquiry. 1. Triggering Event 2. Exploration 3. Integration 4.Resolution/ Application 1.Inciting curiosity and defining key questions and/or issues for investigation 2.Exchanging and exploring perspectives and information resources with other learners 3.Connecting ideas through reflection 4.Applying new ideas and/or defending solutions Garrison, Anderson & Archer (2000)

30 Inquiry through Blended Learning (ITBL) Design considerations Before a face to face (synchronous) session During a face to face (synchronous) session After a face to face (synchronous) session Preparation for the next face to face (synchronous) session

31 Triad model Ehrmann (2002)

32 Modified Triad Approach Learning Outcomes Assessment Activities Before a Synchronous Session During a Synchronous Session After a Synchronous Session Tools What do you want your students to know when they have finished your course (e.g. key learning outcomes – knowledge, skills and attitudes)? How will you and your students know if they have achieved these learning outcomes (e.g. opportunities for self, peer and instructor assessment)? How will you help students determine what prior knowledge and experience they have with the assessment activity? How will students synchronously interact and engage with the assessment activity? What portion of this assessment activity will require reflective time for interaction and communication? What tools could be used to help organize, facilitate, and direct these assessment activities? Handout

33 Learning Outcomes Learning Outcomes Assessment Activities Before a Synchronous Session During a Synchronous Session After a Synchronous Session Tools Communicate effectively, using the language and concepts of teaching and learning

34 Assessment Triad Approach Self-Reflection Peer FeedbackInstructor/Expert Feedback Online quizzes Blogs Portfolios Wikis Peer review tools Clickers

35 Assessment Activities Learning Outcomes Assessment Activities Before a Synchronous Session During a Synchronous Session After a Synchronous Session Tools Communicate effectively, using the language and concepts of teaching and learning Online quizzes -10% Journals – 20% Clicker quizzes -10% Wiki Summaries – 10% Peer review – 15% Portfolio - 35%

36 1. Before a Face to Face (synchronous) Session

37 Questions How are you preparing students to participate in face to face (synchronous) sessions? Triggering event ideas?

38 Community Web Space

39 Pre-readings

40 Social Book Marking

41 Adobe Presenter (formerly Macromedia Breeze)

42 Just in Time Teaching (JiTT)

43 Self-assessment Quizzes (knowledge probes)

44 Commercial Software Applications

45 Design Considerations Before Face to Face (synchronous) Session Nature of Inquiry Learning Activities Technology Tools Learner Create a triggering event Advanced organizer Stimulate connections Teacher Determine learner prior knowledge or experience with the topic or issue a) Reading/Writing b) Listening/Writing i) Communication ii) Posting or linking to pre-reading assignments iii) Digital learning objects iv) Self assessment quizzes v) Anonymous surveys vi) Discussion Forum

46 Before a Synchronous Session Learning Outcomes Assessment Activities Before a Synchronous Session During a Synchronous Session After a Synchronous Session Tools Communicate effectively, using the language and concepts of teaching and learning Online quizzes -10% Journals – 20% Clicker quizzes -10% Wiki Summaries – 10% Peer review – 15% Portfolio - 35% Pre-class reading with an individual online quiz in Blackboard (4 concept questions and 1 what did you not understand question) Social bookmarking application Quiz tool in Blackboard

47 2. Face to Face (synchronous) Session

48 Questions What types of face to face (synchronous) learning activities are you utilizing with your students? Challenges or issues with these activities?

49 Quiz & Survey Feedback

50 Digital Learning Objects/Resources

51 Displaying Assignments/Student work

52 Classroom Response Systems

53 Labatorials

54 Design Considerations During Face to Face (synchronous) Session Nature of InquiryLearning ActivitiesTechnology Tools Defining the triggering events (key questions) Beginning to explore the questions a) Talking/Listeningi)Displaying quiz or survey results ii)Displaying and discussing digital learning objects iii)Displaying assignments and creating/discussing assessment rubrics iv)Conducting in-class quizzes v)Small group work

55 During a Synchronous Session Learning Outcomes Assessment Activities Before a Synchronous Session During a Synchronous Session After a Synchronous Session Tools Communicate effectively, using the language and concepts of teaching and learning Online quizzes -10% Journals – 20% Clicker quizzes -10% Wiki Summaries – 10% Peer review – 15% Portfolio - 35% Pre-class reading with an individual online quiz in Blackboard (4 concept questions and 1 what did you not understand question) Study group discussions about the concept questions Mini-lecture from the instructor to reinforce the concepts and diagnose student misconceptions Social bookmarking application Quiz tool in Blackboard

56 3. After Face to Face (synchronous) Session

57 Questions Examples of follow-up activities that you are using with your students? Challenges or issues with out of class activities?

58 Anonymous end of week survey

59 Announcements

60 Weblog – Reflective Journaling & Peer Review Tool

61 Student- led Online Discussion Forums

62 Wikis – Collaborative Writing Tool

63 Group Project Areas

64 Collaborative Virtual Learning Spaces

65 Design Considerations After Face to Face (synchronous) Session Nature of InquiryLearning ActivitiesTechnology Tools Further exploration and a start towards tentative integration through the ability to connect theory to practice/ application a) Reading/Writing b) Talking/Listening + Reading/Writing Preparation for next synchronous session a) Reading/Writing i) Anonymous surveys ii) Communication iii) Individual and group project work

66 After a Synchronous Session Learning Outcomes Assessment Activities Before a Synchronous Session During a Synchronous Session After a Synchronous Session Tools Communicate effectively, using the language and concepts of teaching and learning Online quizzes -10% Journals – 20% Clicker quizzes -10% Wiki Summaries – 10% Peer review – 15% Portfolio - 35% Pre-class reading with an individual online quiz in Blackboard (4 concept questions and 1 what did you not understand question) Study group discussions about the concept questions Mini-lecture from the instructor to reinforce the concepts and diagnose student misconceptions Assigned study group summarizes the class discussion on the course wiki Students use these co- constructed summaries for their research projects and portfolio Social bookmarking application Quiz tool in Blackboard Course wiki Peer review tool ePortfolio

67 Improvement in higher education will require converting teaching from a solo sport to a community-based research activity. (Carnegie Mellon University)

68 Case study Mount Royal University Calgary, Alberta, Canada

69 Classroom Survey of Student Engagement (CLASSE) Five clusters of effective educational practice (benchmarks) Active and collaborative learning Student interactions with faculty members Level of academic challenge Enriching educational experiences Supportive campus environment

70 First Year Undergraduate Courses 1.BIOL1202 – Introduction to Cell Biology 2.COMM1610 – Tools for Information Designers 3.CYCC1110 – Fundamental Skills in Interviewing 4.ECON1101 – Principles of Microeconomics 5.GNED1102 – Controversies in Science 6.MGMT2262 – Business Statistics I 7.MGMT2275 – Creativity in the Workplace

71 Data Collection – Fall 2008, Winter 2009, Fall 2009 Online surveys CLASSE (NSSE) + EDUCAUSE Centre for Applied Research (ECAR) Administered to both students and faculty Student focus group lunches Blackboard usage, final course grades and withdrawal/retention rates Instructor interviews Instructor focus group lunch

72 Final Marks vs Active & Collaborative Learning Indicators

73 Blackboard as the Course Base Camp

74 Final Marks vs Blackboard Use

75 Correlations between Engagement, Blackboard Use and Intensity of Technology Use Engagement IndicatorsBlackboard UseIntensity of Course- related Technology Use Active and collaborative learning r=0.177**r=0.482** Student-faculty interactionr=0.189**r=0.413** Level of academic challenge r=0.187**r=0.339** **p<0.01

76 Course Satisfaction 97% - agreed/strongly agreed that the technologies used in this course were appropriate for performing the assessment tasks required 92% - agreed/strongly agreed that they would recommend this course to other students

77 Most Effective Aspect of Courses Interactive Technology Tools and Resources Blackboard Plus Class Projects In and out of class; in person and virtually Instructor Knowledge of the course content Desire for students to succeed

78 Least Effective Aspect of Courses Workload Overwhelming work load Fast paced Too much reading Out of class time Lack of clear directions Online labs and tutorials Inquiry based learning Emphasis on self-directed learning

79 CONCLUSION

80 FUTURE BL has become an educational epidemic. Three forces have converged – technology, financial constraints, and quality concerns. The result is three major non-contradictory affordances – effectiveness, efficiency, and convenience. The result is the era of engagement (sustainable communities).

81 … the impact of blended learning is potentially monumental – permanently changing how students interact with higher education … Laumakis, Graham & Dziuban, 2009

82 Resources

83 Canadas Collaboration for Online Higher Education & Research (COHERE)

84 Questions?

85 Contact Information Dr. Norman Vaughan, Professor Mount Royal University Faculty of Teaching and Learning 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW Calgary, Alberta, Canada T3E 6K6


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