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Universität Karlsruhe (TH) © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Chapter 2 Model for transactions

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2 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Read/write model Transaction 1Transaction 2... Transaction n Scheduler Database Manager Database Backup/Recovery Manager restart Archive Manager restore Basic operations in the model? We are only concerned with database consistency we are only interested in database reads and writes. We abstract from transaction semantics except for database reads and writes. Basic operations must be guaranteed to be formal consistent, atomic and isolated.

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3 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Read/write model Definition 2.1 (Read/Write Model Transaction): A transaction t is a partial order of steps (actions) of the form r(x) or w(x), where x D (D database) and reads and writes applied to the same object are strictly ordered. We write t = (op, <) for transaction t with step set op and partial order <. Syntax: Examples: t 1 = r(s) w(s) r(v) w(v) for short: r(s) w(s) r(v) w(v) t 2 = r(s) w(s) r(v) w(v)

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4 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Read/write model Definition 2.1 (Read/Write Model Transaction): A transaction t is a partial order of steps (actions) of the form r(x) or w(x), where x D (D database) and reads and writes applied to the same object are strictly ordered. We write t = (op, <) for transaction t with step set op and partial order <. Syntax: Semantics: Interpretation of j th step, p j, of t: If p j =r(x), then interpretation is assignment v j := x to local variable v j If p j =w(x) then interpretation is assignment x := f j (v j1,..., v jk ). with unknown function f j and j 1,..., j k denoting ts prior read steps. Worst-case assumption!

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5 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Read/write model Semantics: Interpretation of j th step, p j, of t: If p j =r(x), then interpretation is assignment v j := x to local variable v j If p j =w(x) then interpretation is assignment x := f j (v j1,..., v jk ). with unknown function f j and j 1,..., j k denoting p j s prior read steps. Examples: t 1 = r(s) w(s) r(v) w(v) for short: r(s) w(s) r(v) w(v) t 2 = r(s) w(s) r(v) w(v)

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6 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Page model Transaction 1Transaction 2... Transaction n Scheduler Database Manager Database Backup/Recovery Manager restart Archive Manager restore Basic data elements in the model? reads and writes on database pages. Organized in data pages.

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7 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Procedural model Transaction 1Transaction 2... Transaction n Scheduler Database Manager Database Backup/Recovery Manager restart Archive Manager restore Transactions in the model? reads and writes on database pages. Procedural combination

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8 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Procedural model Definition 2.1 (Read/Write Model Transaction): A transaction t is a partial order of steps (actions) of the form r(x) or w(x), where x D (D database) and reads and writes applied to the same object are strictly ordered. We write t = (op, <) for transaction t with step set op and partial order <. Syntax: For some operations their mutual order of execution does not affect the end result. Definition covers the multiprocessor/parallel case. Examples:r(s) w(s) r(v) w(v)

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9 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Procedural model A transaction brackets a number of operations read write by begin transaction and end transaction or abort Successful completion of the transaction. Results are made persistent (commit). Unsuccessful termination of the transaction. Results are discarded. abbrev. b c a r w abbrev.

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10 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Reads and writes on the same element are ordered Each operation occurs at most once If a or c in t i, then as the last operation Transaction model Definition 2.2 (Read/Write Model Transaction): A transaction t i is a partial order (op i,< i ), with op i all operations in t i and 1. op i {r i (x),w i (x) | x is data element } {a i,c i } (op i = op i \ {a i,c i }) 2. p op i p = c i p = a i ( q op i q < i p) 3. r i (x),w i (x) op i (r i (x) < i w i (x) w i (x) < i r i (x)) 4. a i op i c i op i and c i op i a i op i If a or c in t i, only one of them

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11 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Transaction model Definition 2.2 (Read/Write Model Transaction): A transaction t i is a partial order (op i,< i ), with op i all operations in t i and 1. op i {r i (x),w i (x) | x is data element } {a i,c i } (op i = op i \ {a i,c i }) 2. p op i p = c i p = a i ( q op i q < i p) 3. r i (x),w i (x) op i (r i (x) < i w i (x) w i (x) < i r i (x)) 4. a i op i c i op i and c i op i a i op i Often excluded due to standard implementation: No read of an element after it was updated.

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12 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Transaction set model Transaction 1Transaction 2... Transaction n Scheduler Database Manager Database Backup/Recovery Manager restart Archive Manager restore Transaction sets in the model? reads and writes on database pages. Procedural combination

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13 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Transaction set model Transaction 1Transaction 2... Transaction n Scheduler Database Manager Database Backup/Recovery Manager restart Archive Manager restore reads and writes on database pages. Result of mixing the of different transactions? Result: Schedule. Not every syntactically correct schedule is semantically correct (i.e., preserves the ACID properties). Formal description of correct schedules needed. Procedural combination Notation : T={t 1,..., t n } is the set of transactions covered by a schedule.

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14 © 2006 Univ,Karlsruhe, IPD, Prof. Lockemann/Prof. BöhmTAV 2 Transaction set model Transaction 1Transaction 2... Transaction n Scheduler Database Manager Database Backup/Recovery Manager restart Archive Manager restore Algorithms for the runtime generation of semantically correct schedules? Result: Schedule. Not every syntactically correct schedule is semantically correct (i.e., preserves the ACID properties). Formal description of correct schedules needed. Application programs send basic operations. Algorithm sorts these dynamically into a correct schedule.

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