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Youth and employment in Europe : a dead-end? ETUC Youth conference by Marie-Anne Robberecht Madrid 26-28 August 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Youth and employment in Europe : a dead-end? ETUC Youth conference by Marie-Anne Robberecht Madrid 26-28 August 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Youth and employment in Europe : a dead-end? ETUC Youth conference by Marie-Anne Robberecht Madrid 26-28 August 2010

2 Target group: Youth Definition « Youth may be considered as a transition phase, between a world of rather secure development to a world of choice where individuals have to choose and plan their own social integration» (Eurostat)‏ The passage from a dependant childhood to independant adulthood:  Milestones: age, age-limit for child-benefits, voting age, end of compulsory education…  This report focuses on population aged between 15 and 29.

3 Demography: close to 100 million young people live in the EU

4 Key figures relating to demography Currently 96 million young people aged 15-29 live in the EU. Young people aged 15-29 constitute 19,4% of the total population within the EU (a fifth). Projected share of young people in 2050: 15,3% of the total population.

5 Education Many pathes lead to the labour market

6 Useful concept and definitions by the International Standard of Classification of Education (ISCED)‏ Level 1 and 2 : Primary and Lower-secondary education (compulsory education)‏ Level 3 : (Upper) secondary education: begins at the end of compulsory education. Entrance age: 15 or 16. Level 4: Post-secondary non tertiary education: pre-degree foundation courses or short vocational programs Level 5: First stage of tertiary education: theoretically based programms (history, philosophy, mathematics, etc); giving access to professions with high skill requirements (medecine, dentistry, architecture..)‏ Level 6: Second stage of tertiary education: leading to an advanced research qualification

7 Most young people are entering upper- secondary education after the end of compulsory education… Note: At the age of 19, more than 60% of young people are still in formal education

8 By ISCED 3, choosing the programme: general or vocational? Source: ISCED, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization General education  Education which is mainly designed to lead participants to a deeper understanding of a subject, especially with a view to preparing participants for further education at the same or a higher level.  Succesfull completion may or may not provide the participants with a labour-market relevant qualification.  These programmes are typically school-based. Vocational education  Education which is mainly designed to lead participants to acquire the practical skills, know-how and understanding necessary for employment in a particular occupation or trade.  Successful completion of such programmes lead to a labour-market relevant vocational qualification recognised by the competent authorities in the country in which it is obtained (e.g. Ministry of Education, employers’ associations, etc.).

9 A gender gap in upper secondary education : more women than men in general education Attending general programmes:  54% of girls  43% of boys Attending vocational programmes:  46% of girls  53% of boys

10 A great part of 19 years old are engaged in ISCED 3 and 6

11 More students in the knowledge triangle: education, research and innovation Notes:  The number of tertiary education students has increased by nearly 25 % between 1998 and 2006.  In 2006: 19 million students in the tertiary field in the EU

12 Notes:  15 % of the population aged between 18 and 34 attend tertiary education  More than half of the countries show attendance rates higher than 15%  Low rates for Cyprus, Malta and Luxemburg: young people are studying abroad  More women than men  Young people in tertiary education are full- time students, which leads to higher dependance

13 Learning foreign languages : « a key for the future! » Many mother tongues are « the ability to understand and communicate in more than one language is a desirable life-skill for all Europeancitizens. It enables people to take advantage of the freedom to work or study in another Member State » (European’s Commission communication on a New Framework Strategy for multilinguism (2005) At EU level: less than 10% of pupils in upper-secondary education (ISCED 3) do not learn any foreign language Pupils in vocational education at ISCED 3: 64% learn one language, 24% learn two languages Pupils in general education at ISCED 3: nearly all pupils learn at least one language Note: in Portugal and the UK, 40% do not learn any foreign language!

14 « Learning mobility should be provided to all young people in Europe » Since 1987, Erasmus has supported more than 2 million students

15 The phenomenon of « early school leavers » is decreasing…

16 …but still exists Countries with the highest values:  Malta, Portugal, Spain, Italy and Cyprus Countries with the lowest values:  Slovenia, Slovakia, Poland and Czech Republic  The average of ESL is now standing at 14,8% in the EU

17 Employment More difficulties to enter the labour- market for young people

18 Transition from school to work takes place between 18 and 24 Half of 20 year-old young people were on the EU labour market in 2007 In 2007, the majority of 15 year olds were in education and economically inactive (exception: Denmark)‏ Transition time: between 18 and 24  Among 18 year olds, 59% were exclusively in education  At the age of 24, the majority were active In a majority of Member States, 70% of 29 year olds were economically active and no longer in education

19 Employment rate is higher by age group 25-29 than by age group 15-24

20 Focus on activity

21 Studying while working

22 Precarity of contracts Temporary work: stepping-stone or trap?

23 Precarity of contracts Part-time jobs

24 Young entrepreneurs : being self-sufficient is attractive, but too much administrative barriers remains

25 The higher the level of education, the lower the risk of unemployment Notes : High educated people: 16% are economically inactive People with a most secondary lower education : 65% are economically inactive

26 Young people are much more concerned by unemployment than their elders at EU level

27 Unemployment in the Member States: a very large spectrum Unemployment rates, age group 15-24  the lowest : Netherlands and Denmark  below 10% : Austria, Ireland and Lithuania  above 20% : Greece, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovakia  Raise of 5%: Sweden, Portugal, Hungary and Luxemburg Unemployment rates, age group 25-29  above 10%: Greece, Portugal, Italy, Spain, France  Raise of 7% in Portugal! Both groups  Gender gap: more women than men are unemployed

28 Long-term unemployment and NEET: risk of social exclusion NEET: Not currently Engaged in Employment, Education or Training  In 2007, more than on third of young people aged 15-24 were NEET

29 One in five young people living at risk of poverty (share of persons with an income below 60% of the national median income)

30 Living conditions : difficult to become independent!

31 Thank you for your attention !

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