Presentation on theme: "T HE A GE OF J EFFERSON Chapter 2, Section 3. P URSUING R EPUBLICAN P RINCIPLES The election of 1800 was the first peaceful transfer of power in American."— Presentation transcript:
P URSUING R EPUBLICAN P RINCIPLES The election of 1800 was the first peaceful transfer of power in American history. As Jefferson entered the presidency, he spoke of a “ revolution ” in terms of government principles. What were some of the changes Jefferson made upon taking office? Reduced the national debt. Increased revenue from foreign trade. Sale of federal lands in the Northwest Territory. Made cuts to the army and navy. Streamlined the government’s beauracracy or government departments and workers. With Democratic-Republicans in power, the displays of wealth that the Federalists had used to maintain standing in society were gone; Jefferson was seen as a ‘ common man.’
J OHN M ARSHALL ’ S S UPREME C OURT Before John Adams left office, he appointed a new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall. John Marshall, unlike Jefferson, was a Federalist. After serving on the Supreme Court for 35 years and hearing over 1,000 cases, he left with four ‘legacies’ that guided him during his career. Claimed the power of the Supreme Court to review acts of Congress and determine whether they were unconstitutional or not. This would become known as judicial review. Federal laws are superior to state laws. Broad interpretation of the Constitution; use of ‘implied powers’. Believed in the “sanctity of contracts”—limited the power of the government to interfere with business.
J OHN M ARSHALL ’ S S UPREME C OURT John Marshall first exercised the power of judicial review in the court case Marbury v. Madison (1803). Summarize the court case below: - William Marbury had been promised a position as a federal judge by outgoing John Adams. - James Madison refused to deliver the papers to these ‘midnight judges’ Adams appointed. - Marbury argued that the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Supreme Court power to order an official to perform this duty. - John Marshall declared the Act unconstitutional, giving the Supreme Court the power to review Congressional acts.
J OHN M ARSHALL ’ S S UPREME C OURT Why was Marshall’s ruling so significant compared to his later decisions? It was the only time Marshall ruled an act unconstitutional. It gave the Supreme Court broad power to ‘check’ Congress’ actions.
T HE N ATION E XPANDS Jefferson believed that farm ownership demonstrated freedom for white Americans. However, even with the land from the Northwest Territory, the United States simply wasn’t large enough to fulfill this goal. Thomas Jefferson wanted to expand the size of the United States to the Pacific Ocean. At first, Jefferson saw the Louisiana Territory as easy to seize because the Spanish empire was weak, and the territory was thinly populated. However, in 1801, Spain handed over the territory to French leader Napoleon Bonaparte including valuable New Orleans.
T HE N ATION E XPANDS Napoleon was receptive due to a slave revolt that had occurred in Haiti, led by Toussaint L’Ouverture. The small French army was outmatched and Napoleon needed money to fight the British. James Monroe and Robert Livingston were able to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase for $15 million. This purchase doubled the size of the United States. How was this purchase a deviation from Jefferson’s principles? He took it upon himself to use the ‘implied powers’ of the Constitution to negotiate the treaty with France.
J EFFERSON ’ S F OREIGN T ROUBLES The Barbary states of North Africa—Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli and Algiers, had been making money seizing ships in the Mediterranean. In order to stop the piracy, Washington and Adams had paid for the protection of the ships. Once the price rose, Jefferson refused to pay and instead sent a navy to blockade the port of Tripoli and succeeded. As population grew, the United States needed a way to sell their surplus goods. In order to pass the British blockade of French ships from the West Indies, the United States participated in the practice of “ re-exporting.”
J EFFERSON ’ S F OREIGN T ROUBLES The British also practiced the policy of impressment, or taking American sailors off U.S. ships to serve in the large British navy. Again, the Federalist governments were willing to allow this happen, but Jefferson was not. Instead of increasing the size of the navy to compete with the British, Jefferson passed an embargo, suspending trade with Europe in 1807. However, this backfired and bankrupted American merchants while the British found new markets in South America.